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Nutrition Exam #4
Terms in this set (74)
Two causes of obesity in humans are:
1. set-point theory
2. genetics and physical inactivity
3. genetics and low-carbohydrate diets
4. mineral imbalances and fat cell imbalance
All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except:
1. the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
2. the storage capacity for fat depends on both cell number and cell size
3. the size is larger in obese people than in normal-weight people
4. the number increases most rapidly during the growth years and tapers off when adult status is reached
What are the circumstances that people encounter daily that push them towards fatness or thinness?
The biggest problem associated with the use of prescription drugs in the treatment of obesity is:
2. the necessity of long-term use
4. adverse side effects
What are inappropriate treatments for weight loss and why are they inappropriate?
Over-the-counter weight-loss products because you are losing water weight
What are aggressive treatments for weight loss?
Surgery (gastric bypass) (Nutrient deficiencies)
What is the best approach to weight loss?
1. avoid foods containing carbohydrates
2. eliminate all fats from the diet, and decrease water intake
3. greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss
4. reduce daily energy intake, and increase energy expenditure
What are reasonable strategies for weight loss?
Small changes, moderate losses, and reasonable goals
Healthful eating plan
Behavior and attitude
What strategy would NOT help an underweight person to gain weight?
2. drink plenty of water
3. eat snacks between meals
4. eat large portions of foods
What are some strategies for gaining weight?
Three meals daily
Juice & milk
Harmful effects of weight cycling
Increases stress hormones and causes you to have low energy
What is diabetes mellitus?
A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and disordered insulin metabolism
What is the key that unlocks the cell so sugar can get in?
Which of the following is characteristic of type I diabetes?
1. abdominal obesity increases risk
2. the pancreas makes little or no insulin
3. it is the predominant form of diabetes
4. it often arises during pregnancy
What type of diabetes has no insulin?
What are 2 characteristics of type 1 diabetes?
What are 4 characteristics of type 2 diabetes?
Prevention is key
Most chronic complications associated with diabetes result from:
1. altered kidney function
2. infections that deplete nutrient reserves
3. weight gain and hypertension
4. damage to blood vessels and nerves
What are some complications of diabetes and which type do they correspond with?
Diabetic ketoacidosis-type I
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome-type II
How can you treat type 1 diabetes?
Insulin regimen - Tightly controlled glucose levels
How can you treat type 2 diabetes?
1st try nutrition, oral medications, and eventually insulin
How often should people with type 1 diabetes check their blood glucose levels?
3 or more times a day
What is the best chance of survival for a baby born to a diabetic mother?
At what age do children's appetites begin to diminish?
Children over 1 years old need how many carbohydrates per day?
What percent of energy are from fat/fatty acids in 1-3 year olds?
4-18 year olds?
Is iron deficient anemia linked to poor classroom performance? Why?
yes, it is used to make neurotransmitters which help the child to pay attention
Children who had iron deficiency as an infant will continue to perform poorly, even as their iron status improves.
How do parents help develop healthy eating habits?
What does vulnerability mean when we are talking about lead toxicity?
malnourished, iron deficiency, low socio-economic status, and lack of immunizations
If a child is exposed to lead what might happen to them?
it could disrupt normal brain development which would cause impaired congition and behavior
What does short-term hunger mean?
missing a meal
What does long term hunger mean?
Malnourished, impaired growth
Which meal is a child most likely to miss?
What is the difference between an intolerance and an allergy?
Intolerance - symptoms of intolerance but your body does NOT make antibodies
Allergy - might have symptoms but DO make antibodies
Which of the following is NOT true? Children who watch a lot of television are likely to:
1. become obese
2. spend less time being physically active
3. learn healthy eating tips from programs
4. eat the foods most often advertised on television
What are some risks of childhood obesity?
Parental obesity, diet, physical inactivity
How can childhood obesity be prevented?
Diet, activity, psychological support, behavioral changes, drugs, and surgery
During the growth spurt of adolescence:
1. females gain more weight than males
2. males gain more fat, proportionately, than females
3. differences in body composition between males and females become apparent
4. similarities in body composition between males and females become apparent
Which 3 vitamins/minerals do you need more as a teenager?
Which of the following lifestyle habits can enhance the length and quality of people's lives?
1. moderate smoking
2. six hours of sleep daily
3. regular physical activity
4. skipping breakfast
What are some pros of physical activity?
Weight less, have greater flexibility, more endurance, better balance, better health, live longer
What are old people at risk for?
urinary tract infections, pneumonia, pressure ulcers, confusion, and disorientation
How much water should old people be drinking?
What are some characteristics of old people and dehydration?
May not notice or pay attention to thirst
May be difficult or bothersome to get a drink or go to the restroom
Bladder control issues
Total body water decreases with age
Mild stresses like fever, hot weather can lead to issues
Which of the following does not explain why dehydration is a risk for older adults?
1. they do not seem to feel thirsty
2. total body water increases with age
3. they may find it difficult to get a drink
4. they may have difficulty swallowing liquids
What changes as we grow into adulthood?
Fiber become increasingly important!
Vit D-greater risk for deficiency...limited sunlight
Vit B12/Folate-may not eat enought or have absorption
Iron-less common in older adults
Zinc-commonly low in elderly
What are some ways to stay healthy before you get pregnant?
Full nutrient stores before pregnancy
Achieve and maintain healthy body weight
Choose adequate & balanced diet
Be physically active
Receive regular medical care
Avoid harmful influences
What are the nutrient needs while you are pregnant?
2nd trimester-extra 340 calories/day
3rd trimester-extra 450 calories/day
Carbohydrates=fetal brain (175 grams/day increase)
Protein=fetal growth (25 grams/day increase)
Essential fatty acids=BABY BRAIN
How does folate help baby and mom? and how much folate should mom consume daily?
Famous for role in cell production
Increased cell production for mom & baby
What foods contain folate?
Liver, lentils, chickpeas, pinto beans, asparagus, spinach, avocado, orange juice, beets, enriched grain products
How does B12 help baby and mom?
Famous for role in cell production
Increased cell production for mom & baby
Assists folate in the manufacture of new cells
What foods can mom get B12 from? and how much should mom consume daily?
Meat, dairy, eggs (animal products)
Is there a concern for the amount of B12 vegan mothers are consuming?
What vitamins and minerals are in great demand while you are pregnant?
What happens if you have an insufficient amount of these vitamins and minerals?
Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride
abnormal bone growth and tooth development
Why do pregnant women under 25 need more calcium than older women?
How much calcium should moms have each day?
because they are still developing themselves.
over 25 = 1000mg/day, under 25 you need more
Which foods have Vit D and calcium?
Orange juice, milk products, soy milk, fortified cereals
What mineral does the body conserve well during pregnancy?
Which foods can you get iron from?
meat, seafood, & poultry
eggs, vegetables, legumes and Vitamin C to aid in absorption
When is the peak of morning sickness?
9 weeks and resolves within a month or 2
What can alleviate morning sickness?
On waking, arise slowly out of bed, eat dry toast or crackers, chew gum or suck hard candies, eat small frequent meals, avoid foods with offensive odors, avoid certain drinks when nauseous
What can alleviate heart burn during pregnancy?
Relax and eat slowly, chew food thoroughly, eat small, frequent meals, drink liquids between meals, avoid spicy or greasy foods, sit up while eating, wait an hour after eating before lying down, wait 2 hours after eating before exercising
What are the causes of constipation during pregnancy?
Hormones alter muscle tone
Infant crowds intestines
What can alleviate constipation?
High fiber diet, exercise daily, drink at least 8 glasses of liquids a day, respond promptly to the urge to defecate, use laxatives only as prescribed
What are some habits to avoid while pregnant?
Drugs of abuse
breast feeding vs formula
PROS of breast feeding
Appropriate composition and balance of nutrients, high bioavailability
Promotes physiological development
Improves cognitive development
Protects against a variety of illnesses and infections
May protect against chronic diseases
Protects against food allergies
Supports healthy weight
Reduces the risk of SIDS
How long should mom breastfeed her child?
What is the ONLY acceptable formula?
Does putting a baby to bed with a bottle promote tooth decay?
When are babies ready for solids?
When can an infant sit up and handle finger foods?
What kind of foods should you omit from a babies diet?
Sweets of any kind, including baby food "desserts"
Canned vegetables because they have too much sodium
Honey and corn syrup because it leads to botulism
Allergy causing foods
**be careful of foods that could be choking hazards
How much milk should a 1 year old have per day?
What kind of solid foods should be introduced into a 1 year olds diet?
Meats, iron-fortified cereals, whole-grain or enriched bread, fruits, and vegetables
True or False
It is important for a baby to sit at the table and eat the same foods as the rest of the family.
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