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Psych 104 Final

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A television producer is interested in whether women like soap operas more than sitcoms. The producer uses a random number table to select a sample of 100 households, and then makes phone calls to these households every afternoon for three weeks. Of those who were home when the producer called, 75% reported they liked soap operas more than sitcoms. Which of the following might raise questions about the results?​
the representativeness of the sample
Which of the "ABCs of the self" is most relevant to the idea of the self-concept?​
​cognition
The process of predicting how one will feel in response to future emotional events is called​
affective forecasting.
Marcia is unsure about whether Jan is her best friend. She thinks about how many times she has listened to Jan complain about her boyfriend, helped Jan study for difficult exams, and brought soup to Jan when she was sick. Marcia realizes that she, herself, calls or visits Jan almost every night. After thinking about all this, Marcia concludes that Jan must be her best friend. This conclusion is based on a process described by ____ theory
​self-perception
Prejudice and discrimination based on a person's gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender (typically men) over another, are most accurately termed
​sexism.
Implicit racism is correlated with ____ for interactions with a minority group member.
reduced eye contact
Stigmatized targets are at increased risk for
long-term physical and mental health problems.
Social categorization leads people to
overestimate differences between groups.
Cross-cultural research indicates that people from collectivist cultures are ____ likely to boost their self-esteem through enhancing their ingroups and ____ likely to draw sharp distinctions between ingroup and outgroup members than are people from individualist cultures.
less; more
In the aftermath of the Amadou Diallo shooting, several psychologists have investigated the influence that a suspect's race might play in police decisions to shoot or not shoot. The results of these studies suggest that
mere awareness of racial stereotypes is enough to influence police behavior, even if the officers do not endorse these stereotypes.
Sammy and Mark watch a ballgame together. Sammy favors the home team, while Mark is an avid fan of the road team. The star player for Sammy's team makes a great play and starts to celebrate in a rather demonstrative fashion. Sammy gets caught up in the celebration, while Mark is angered because he feels this display is an insult to the players of his team. This demonstrates that
we often interpret events and behavior based upon pre-existing attitudes.
According to the theory of planned behavior, one reason that a person's behavior might not be consistent with that person's attitudes is that the behavior
is determined by norms that are counter to the person's attitudes.
Chart and and Bergh (1999) had experimental accomplices mimic the mannerisms of some participants but not others. They found that
​participants whose mannerisms were mimicked liked the accomplice more than participants who were not copied.
As he was about to enter the mall, Evan was approached by someone and asked to wear a small green ribbon on his shirt to show his support for the "Save the Squirrels" campaign. Evan wasn't quite sure that squirrels were actually endangered, but he agreed to wear the ribbon. A week later, Evan was approached again and asked to contribute $10 to help save the squirrels. Though he would have rather spent his money elsewhere, he agreed. Evan has been the victim of the ____ technique.
foot-in-the-door
What percentage of the participants in Milgram's study of destructive obedience demonstrated complete obedience to the experimenter?
65%
Implicit attitudes can be difficult to measure because
people are not aware of having them.
The "anger superiority effect" in social perception refers to the finding that people are quicker to​
spot an angry face in a crowd than a neutral or happy face.
Sheriff's (1936) research using the auto kinetic effect demonstrated that
people often look to others as a source of information.
Participants in Asch's line judgment study conformed approximately ____ percent of the time.
37
​According to Zajonc's model of social facilitation, the three steps in determining the influence of the presence of others on performance are
arousal, dominant response, and task difficulty.
According to the two-stage model of attraction proposed by Byrne et al. (1986), people
first avoid dissimilar others and then approach those remaining who are most similar.
Popular wisdom is often contradictory, as with the following two sayings: 1) "opposites attract" and 2) "birds of a feather flock together." Research on the relationship between similarity and liking suggests that
statement #2 is more accurate; people tend to be more attracted to those who are similar to themselves.
The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics is called the
what-is-beautiful-is-good stereotype.
The evolutionary principle of kin selection dictates that we are more likely to help someone who is
​genetically related to us.
Kelli always tries to be very helpful because she believes it increases her chances of receiving help at a future time. Kelli's thinking most closely reflects the concept of
reciprocal altruism.
​Deindividuation refers to the
loss of individuality and reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior.
Professor Hildebrand just gave the first exam back to his students. Many in the class are convinced that one of the questions he asked had more than one correct answer. In fact, 13 students from the class show up to his office hours to protest the question. Professor Hildebrand is convinced that there is only one correct answer, and so he tries to convince the larger group of students that he is right. He will be most likely to convince this group of his point of view if he
presents his arguments forcefully and consistently.
The desire to reduce cognitive ambiguity, which heightens the importance of first impressions, is called​
the need for closure.
Imagine that you are grading the exams of two students, Michael and Fredo. They both get only half the questions correct. However, Michael gets most of his questions right on the first half of the test, whereas Fredo gets most of his questions right on the last half of the test. According to Asch's work on primacy effects in impression formation, you would be likely to conclude that​
Michael is smarter than Fredo.
The universal dimensions of social cognition are ​
warmth and competence.
Priming refers to the tendency​
for recently used concepts to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information.
You hear Tiger Woods doing a radio commercial for Buick. Even though you know that Woods did not write the commercial himself, was paid to provide the voice-over for the commercial, and probably does not drive a Buick in real life, you still think that at some level, Woods must think highly of Buicks. This is an example of the​
fundamental attribution error.
Britney wonders if she would have been happier had she married Justin instead of Kevin. This illustrates​
counterfactual thinking.
The base-rate fallacy reflects​
​a failure to use consensus information.
The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute​
another person's behavior to personal factors rather than to the situation.
The "hot" perspective in social psychology emphasizes ____, whereas the "cold" perspective emphasizes ____.
emotion and motivation; cognition
​Social neuroscience is best described as the study of the
interaction of social and neural processes.
The cocktail party effect refers to the tendency for people to​
hear the mention of their own name even from across a loud and crowded room.
The term self-concept refers to ​
​the sum total of a person's beliefs concerning his or her own personal attributes.
According to social comparison theory, people are most likely to compare themselves to others who are​
similar.
​By stressing both internal differences among individuals and differences among external situations, the interactionist perspective is an approach combining
​personality psychology with social psychology.
While traveling around the world, Teun shows various people pictures of men and women from his hometown who are smiling and frowning, and he asks these people to infer what emotions the individuals in the pictures are experiencing. According to the research on perceptions of primary emotions, Teun should find that​
perceptions of the emotions are relatively consistent across most cultures.
Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) study, Pygmalion in the Classroom, found that ​
positive teacher expectations influenced student performance.
​Cosmo is convinced that his accountant is addicted to drugs. To determine whether he is correct, Cosmo asks his friends if the accountant sniffs a lot, uses slang when he speaks, or frequently excuses himself to use the men's room—three behaviors Cosmo believes are characteristic of those with drug addictions. Cosmo's methods illustrate​​
​confirmatory hypothesis testing.
A confirmation bias refers to people's tendency to​
​seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs.
Social perceivers are more likely to form accurate judgments of others if they​
​are motivated to be accurate.
Source credibility is determined by
both competence and trustworthiness.
A major difference between cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory involves the extent to which ____ is necessary to lead to self-persuasion and attitude change.
physiological arousal
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, ____ is the emotional component and ____ is the cognitive component.
the need for agreement takes priority over the desire to obtain correct information.
Which means of persuasion is least obvious to a person who is unfamiliar with social psychology?
persuasion from within
Jane Elliot, the 3rd grade teacher who divided her class into two groups; the brown eyed students and the blue eyed students, provides a good reminder of how easy it is
to develop prejudices and discriminate
Following a mass shooting event, most people are confronted with the reality that their safety cannot be guaranteed, and that their own death at any moment is quite possible. According to terror management theory, which individual below will feel the least anxious in response to this sort of confrontation?​
​Emanuel, who just found out that he scored very well on his ACT
​Higgins's (1989) self-discrepancy theory suggests that we each have an "actual self," an "ought self," and an "ideal self." According to Higgins, discrepancies between the ____ self and the actual self often lead to low self-esteem and feelings of ____.
ought; shame
One way of defending our belief in a just world when we observe a victim suffering is to​
disparage the victim.
Lateen and Darley's (1968) "smoke-filled room" study demonstrates the concept of
pluralistic ignorance.
The bystander effect refers to the tendency for
the presence of others to inhibit helping.
According to the two-factor theory of emotion, social context most directly affects​
​the cognitive interpretation of emotion.
Sleeper effects can be reduced by reminding people that the source of a persuasive message was not credible. This supports which explanation of sleeper effects?
the discounting cue hypothesis
Bandura and colleagues' (1961) study of aggressive behavior in children
demonstrated that children will follow an adult model's lead in terms of degree and nature of aggression demonstrated.
​According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), people from collectivist cultures are more likely than those from individualist cultures to
​underestimate their contributions to a team effort.
​Brainstorming is an example of a(n) ____ task because the contribution of all members is important for a final product.
additive
​Social cognition can be best described as the study of
​how we perceive, remember, and interpret information about the self and others.
The Stanford University prison simulation teaches us that
even normal people can be dehumanized by institutional roles and practices.
A stereotype exists in many cultures that men are better than women at math. Ramie is about to take a diagnostic achievement test in math. According to research on stereotype threat, under which condition is Ramie most likely to perform poorly on the test?
Ramie is asked to indicate her sex at the beginning of the test.
Scripts are often culture-specific. This means that​
the same behaviors may be perceived very differently in different cultures.
Eyewitnesses' reports of crime details can be altered by exposure to post-event information. This results from
the reconstructive nature of memory.
Social Psychology
The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
Construct Validity
The validity of the procedure (eg. surveys) used to measure a given variable/construct
"ABC"s of Self
Affect (feelings)
Behavior (interactions)
Cognition (thought) - most relevant to the idea of the self-concept.
Affective Forecasting
-People's predictions about how they will feel in response to a future emotional event.
-Underestimating our mind's ability to handle difficult situations; Getting stuck in the moment, focusing too much.
Terror Management
The basic psychological conflict that results from having a desire to live, but realizing that death is inevitable. This conflict produces terror, and this terror is then managed by embracing cultural values, or symbolic systems that act to provide life with meaning and value.
​dialecticism
-Belief that it is a normal state to have two different views, and you can only come to a single view if you wrestle with the problem long enough
-"It's okay to feel a little bit one way and a little bit the other way."
Social Comparison Theory
The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self
Upward social comparison
when people compare a trait or traits of self to someone that has higher quality of that trait
Downward social comparison
when people compare a trait or traits of self to someone that has a lesser quality of that trait
Self-perception
-People learn about themselves by observing their own behavior
-Inferring thoughts + feelings
-Vicarious self-perception - we observe other people and see how they treat us
Self-awareness
-The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values.
-When we use introspection to observe ourselves, we then compare our thoughts, actions, and behaviors to our "ideal self"
-Self-focusing leads us to notice discrepancies, which we seek to avoid by either escaping/hiding (games, alcohol, etc) or change our behavior to reduce the discrepancy
Implicit Racism
-Attitudes we are unaware of; they are involuntary, uncontrollable, and often unconscious.
-Much more subtle racism
-"Your English is so good!"
Stigmatized targets
-Worse off health both mentally and physically in the long-run
-Refers to people that are targets of stigmas
Social categorization
Classifying people in groups based on similar characteristics EG) nationality, age, ect...
Collectivist Culture
Interdependent view of the self: defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people; one's behavior is determined by the thoughts, feelings and actions of others
Influence of Gender Stereotypes
Could result in hostile sexism
Amadou Diallo shooting
mere awareness of racial stereotypes is enough to influence police behavior, even if the officers do not endorse these stereotypes.
theory of planned behavior
-The idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
-one reason that a person's behavior might not be consistent with that person's attitudes is that the behavior is determined by norms that are counter to the person's attitudes.
Chart and and Bergh Experiment (Chameleon Effect)
Experimental accomplices mimic the mannerisms of some participants but not other
They found that ​participants whose mannerisms were mimicked liked the accomplice more than participants who were not copied.
Foot-in-the-door Technique
Getting people to agree to a small request first, makes them more likely to agree to a larger request next.
Milgram Study
65% percent completed obedience to experimenter
Implicit Attitudes
evaluations that occur without conscious awareness towards an attitude object or the self. Hard to measure, because people aren't aware of them.
anger superiority effect
The anger-superiority hypothesis states that angry faces are detected more efficiently (faster) than friendly/neutral faces.
Sheriff's Research
-Participants stared at a light on the wall and thought it was moving when it really wasn't.
-Next, were paired with others and arrived at a common estimate of the movement distance. Each member tended to conform to estimate once it was made.
-Even after splitting up, the people would still gave same estimate as when with a group ← dumb. Also: AKA Private Acceptance
-SOCIAL INFLUENCE - People were using each other as a source of information, coming to believe that the group estimate was the correct one.
-SOCIAL INFLUENCE
People were using each other as a source of information, coming to believe that the group estimate was the correct one.
Auto Kinetic Effect
If you stare at a bright light in a uniformly dark environment (like a star on a dark night) the light will appear to waver a bit back and forth. Occurs because of no stable visual reference point with which to anchor the position of the light.
Asch's Line Judgment Study
37% of people confirmed in his study!

Participants were given an image of a standard line and had to judge which of three comparison lines was closest in length to the standard line. The correct answer was always obvious, however, members of the group (actually confederates) gave the wrong answer out loud

The results showed 76% of participants conformed on at least one trial and only 26% never conformed. Demonstration of normative social influence leading to public compliance in clear situations.
Zajonc's Model of Social Facilitation
3 steps in determining influence of others on performance are: arousal, dominant response, and task difficulty.
Mere Exposure Effec
The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
Two-Stage Model of Attraction
(Proposed by Byrne et al.)
first avoid dissimilar others and then approach those remaining who are most similar.
Relationship between similarity and liking
The more similar we are to someone, the more likely we are to like them DESPITE the crap about "Opposites attract"
"What Is Beautiful Is Good" Stereotype
-Media tells us beauty is associated with goodness
-Disney Movies: Heroines have a specific look, small noses, big eyes, shapely lips, blemish-free complexion + slim/athletic bodies
-People attribute positive qualities to beautiful people that have nothing to do with their looks, such as intelligence, social skills, etc.
Kin Selection
-More likely to help someone who has the same genes as us
-Make sure our gene pool stays alive
Reciprocal Altruism
Helping someone in the hopes that they will later do the same
Empathy
The ability to understand and respond to the needs of others.
​Deindividuation
loss of individuality and reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior.
Minority influence
Presents arguments forcefully and consistently.
instrumental aggression
Using aggression for a purpose
Hurting someone in football
Pinching someone until they get out of the way (example used a few time in class)
primacy effects
in Asch's experiment, items in the beginning are more important. That is, information that is introduced first is seen as more important than information introduced later
universal dimensions of social cognition
Warmth and competence, has to do with schemas
Priming
The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or concept
base-rate fallacy
Failure to use consensus information
Ignore the base rate(statistical information), in favor of one particular case
fundamental attribution error
-The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
-We believe that people do what they do because of the kind of people that they are, not because of the situation they are in.
Hot/Cold Perspective
Hot → emotion and motivation
Cold → cognition
Social neuroscience
-Interaction of social and neural processes
-Connection between biological processes and social behavior. include the study of hormones and behavior, the human immune system, and neurological processes in the human brain.
cocktail party effect
We are more likely to hear our own name in a crowded room
Self-concept
​the sum total of a person's beliefs concerning his or her own personal attributes.
Interactionist perspective
stressing both internal differences among individuals and differences among external situations personality psychology with social psychology.
Perceptions of primary emotions
Recognition of emotions are same throughout the world
Pygmalion in the Classroom
Positive teacher expectations improved student performance. (Self-fulfilling prophecy)
confirmation bias
using/looking for new info to confirm our previous beliefs, even if they were not explicitly stated. Ignoring info that does not confirm our previous beliefs
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that someone is a certain way, leads you to treat them congruent with that belief, which then causes that person to act in the way they are being treated, also, when you have an idea about how things will work out so you work to achieve that so that thing comes true
Source Credibility
The more credible a source is, the more likely we are to accept their argument
Determined by both competence and trustworthiness.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
-Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that to help yourself feel better about the decision, you will do some unconscious mental work to try to reduce the dissonance.


-In a classic experiment, Jack Brehm (1956) posed as a representative of a consumer testing service and asked women to rate the attractiveness and desirability of several kinds of small appliances. Each woman was told that as a reward for having participated in the survey, she could have one of the appliances as a gift. She was given a choice between two of the products she had rated as being equally attractive. After she made her decision, each woman was asked to rerate all the products. After receiving the appliance of their choice, the women rated its attractiveness somewhat higher than they had the first time.
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
Do I like working out? Well I seem to do it a lot, so I do like working out!
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
1. Passion is the action
2. Intimacy is the emotional component
3. Commitment is the cognitive moment
Groupthink
-A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner

Most likely to occur when certain preconditions are met:
-Group is highly cohesive
-Isolated from contrary opinions
-Ruled by directive leader
Jane Elliot's Classroom
-the 3rd grade teacher who divided her class into two groups; the brown eyed students and the blue eyed students
-provides a good reminder of how easy it is to develop prejudices and discriminate
Embodiment Effect
-mind and body metaphors for social cognition:
- ​rating a target as having a warm personality while holding a cup of hot tea
Self-Esteem
Positive correlation to how closely our actual self is to our ought self
Self-Discrepancy Theory
-Actual self vs. ought self vs. ideal self, not met, then there is a DISCREPANCY
-Self-esteem is lowered by the degree to which the actual self falls short of the ought + ideal selves
-When your actual differs from your ought, you feel shame/guilt; when your actual differs from your ideal, you feel depression, sadness
Actual
traits that describe who you think you actually are
Ought
Traits that would enable you to meet your sense of duty, obligation and responsibility
Ideal
Traits that describe the kind of person you would like to be
Lateen and Darley's (1968) "smoke-filled room" study
-people came into a room and were filling out paperwork for the experiment
-Then, they started to fill the room with smoke
-People in the room would look around at each other to see if they should be worried or not
-If the people around them were worried, then so were they
-If the people around them weren't worried, then they just sat there not worried
-When they were alone, they were worried almost immediately; shows the power of pluralistic ignorance/social influence
Bystander Effect
-The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
-Pluralistic Ignorance: People think that everyone else is interpreting a situation in a certain way , when in fact they are not
-Diffusion of Responsibility: Each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases
two-factor theory of emotion
-The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process
-First, people experience physiological arousal
-Then, seek an appropriate explanation for it
Impact Bias
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's emotional reactions to future negative events
Sleeper Effects
A delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
-The theory that frustration - the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal - increases the probability of an aggressive response
-Produces answer and a readiness to aggress
-Factor that will increase frustration and therefore the probability of aggression: closeness to goal or object desired; the closer you are to the goal you are being denied, the more frustration/aggression you will show; also more when the frustration is unexpected
Bandura and colleagues' (1961) study of aggressive behavior
Experiment: adult hits and yells at a Bobo doll while children watched; the kids then played with the doll and imitated the aggressive actions of the adult
Showed strong support for social learning of aggressive behavior
Markus and Kitayama
Culture and the self:

-Western cultures = independent view
-non-Western cultures = interdependent view
Social cognition
-how people think of themselves and social world
involves automatic thinking, which is nonconscious
-Schemas to reduce ambiguity
-Metaphors about the mind and body: warm cup of coffee with warmth
The Stanford University Prison simulation
-Zimbardo and colleagues randomly assigned students to play role of prisoner or guard in a mock prison.
-They had planned to observe the students for 2 weeks, but the students assumed their roles so quickly that the researchers had to end the experiment after 6 days instead.
many of the guards became abusive and some prisoners became anxious and depressed.
-Example of how people can get so far into their roles that their personal identities and sense of decency can get lost.
Stereotype Threat
-A person will act in a way others have stereotyped them to act
-African Americans/Women being told they are taking a very important test which takes your gender into consideration won't do as well
Scripts
-We often have "scripts" or present notions about certain types of situations. Enables us to anticipate the goals, behaviors, and outcomes likely to occur in a particular setting. Scripts in groups
-These scripts help us understand other people's verbal and nonverbal behavior.
-We sometimes see what we expect to see in a particular situation. People use what they know about social situations to explain the causes of human behavior.