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IDs for Final Exam
Terms in this set (62)
* Total War
o A war that demands extensive state regulation of economic production, distribution & consumption; and that blurs/erases entirely the distinction between civilian & soldier
o Demanded combatant nations to mobilize their industrial economies and their armies—victory depended on the woman in the munitions factory & man on front lines
o WW1 was the 1st total war
* Central Powers
o Germany & Austria-Hungary in WW1. Formed at the start of WW1, following Serbian assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
o faced off with the Allies
o During WW1, the states allied against the Central Powers of Germany/Austria-Hungary
o Combined forces of Russia, France & Great Britain—later USA
* Schlieffen Plan
* Schlieffen Plan
o German military plan devised in 1905 that called for a sweeping attack on France through Belgium & the Netherlands—didn't work out for them
o Prompted England à WW1
* Fortress Truce (Burgfrieden)
o Germany WW1—Political truce the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the other political parties agreed to during WW1. The trade unions refrained from striking, the SPD voted for war credits in the Reichstag and the parties agreed not to criticize the government and its war.
o reasons for the Burgfrieden politics:
* the Social Democrats believed it was their patriotic duty to support the government in war
* they were afraid of government repression should they protest against the war
* they feared living under an autocratic Russian Czar more than the German constitutional monarchy and its Kaiser
* they hoped to achieve political reforms after the war, including the abrogation of the inequitable three-class voting system, by cooperating with the government.
* "No Man's Land"
o WW1—Territory dividing the British/French trench systems from the German. Had deep craters from heavy shelling, littered w corpses/lice/rats
* Treaty of Brest Litovsk
o WW1 1918—Treaty between Germany & Bolshevik-controlled Russia, signed March 1918, ceded to Germany all of Russia's western territories & 1/3 of its population
o Followed Russia's defeat on the Eastern Front. Nullified 7 months later in wake of German's loss in the overall war.
o Victory on Eastern Front significant for 2 reasons
* Short interval btwn Eastern front triumph & defeat in overall war explains why Germans had difficulty believing that they had lost—theories of traitors and betrayal led to the undermining of democratic structures in postwar Germany
* Alliance System:
o Helped escalate a regional conflict à European à Global War
o Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy*
* Defensive alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy signed 1882
* Germany began favoring a new world policy that alienated Britain—aimed to be a global power
* Allowed reinsurance treaty w Russia lapse à Russian alliance w anti-German France
* Germany, located in the center of Europe, alienated many neighboring countries forcing them rely heavily on their only alliance w Austria-Hungary to ensure their stability/protection.
o Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, Russia
* Informal defensive agreement linking France, G.B & Russia before WW1
* In response to German ambition, Britain exited tradition of splendid isolation. Formed tighter links w Russia/France. à Germans put heavier emphasis on alliance w Austria-Hungary
* Fourteen Points
o The principles outlined by Woodrow Wilson as basis for a new world order after WW1. Hoped that points like freedom of the seas, freedom of trade, open diplomacy would break down barriers, guarantee peace, prosperity to all people. Cornerstone would be the League of Nations. Vision went unrealized.
o the right of a people or a nation to decide on its own political allegiance or form of government without external influence.
o Any group that considers itself a nation has right to be ruled only by members of its own nation & to have all members of the nation included in this state
o During WW1, was championed by Allies but had no intention of allowing nations under their imperial rule to
determine own govt. Contradictory to champion both Imperialism & National Self Determination.
o Phrase loaded w dynamite—raised hopes unable to be realized. The call for every people to be left free to determine political destiny begged unanswered question of what constituted "a people."
* Peace settlements to redraw Europe left 30 mill east Europeans still members of minority groups—Not all Hungarians in Hungary, millions of Germans outside Germany's borders, 1/3rd of Czechoslovakia neither Czech nor Slovak, Yugoslavia a volatile mix of diff ethnic groups
o Created volatile situation for post WW1 Europe.
* Treaty of Versailles
o Between Germany and victorious Allies after WW1
o German people resented it.
* Germany lost all of its overseas colonies, 13% of its European territory, 10% of its population & ability to wage war
* Limited Germany army to a defensive force of 100k—no aircrafts/tanks
* Rhineland demilitarized/emptied of German soldiers/fortifications
* Ceded coalfields of Saar region à France for 15 years
o Declared German aggression caused the war/must pay Allies the costs.
* 1921—presented with bill of $31.5 billion
* helped set up econ cycle that proved devastating for global prosperity & democratic politics in Germany
o Sought to create new int'l order based on
* Democratic Germany
* National self-determination in eastern Europe
* System of int'l arbitration in League of Nations
* FAILED ALL THREE
* League of Nations
o Association of states set up after WW1 to resolve international conflicts through open & peaceful negotiation
o Idea introduced by Pres. Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points. Designed to resolve disputes between states/ensure WW1 was war to end all wars.
o Never fulfilled purpose of making war obsolete. 3 major powers had no representation: Germany/Russia/USA—stripped League of potential influence
o No military power—could only levy economic sanctions
o Lack of will to make the League work—no Wilson=European leaders pursuing own visions of what it should be
* Weimar Republic
o The democratic German state constructed after WW1 defeat & destroyed by Nazis in 1933
o 20th cent poli ideology that rejected existing alternatives of conservatism, communism, socialism & liberalism. Fascists stressed authoritarian power of the state, efficacy of violent action, the need to build a national community, and the use of new tech of influence and control
* New Woman
o 1920s—living, working, & travelling on her own, sexually active, stepping out of confines of home/family. Reinforced by style/hair. Rested on changing political/economic expectations—right to vote, expansion of health care/social sectors à new jobs for women, higher education opportunities widen. Family limitations—birth control à fewer pregnancies/mouths to feed à improved women's health/living standards.
* New Economic Policy
o Vladimir Lenin's econ turnaround in 1921 that allowed and even encouraged small private businesses and farms in the Soviet Union`
o The replacement of private & village farms w large cooperative agricultural enterprises run by state-employed managers. Key part of Joseph Stalin's plans for modernizing the Soviet economy & destroying peasant opposition to communist rule
* Great Purge
o In Soviet Union in 1930s, a period of mass arrests and executions particularly aimed at Communist Party members and non-Russians
* Great Depression
o Big drop in prices, reduction in trade, & rise in unemployment that devastated the global economy o 1929-1939
o School for architects/craftsmen/designers established in Berlin in 1919 by Walter Gropious. Represented post-war Western idealism rather than despair. Sought to eliminate the barriers between art & craft. By making daily living more effective/efficient/beautiful they hoped to become the architects of a new civilization. Produced work steeped in political passion and the hope of a radical social change.
* Friedrich Ebert
o Head of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Became chancellor of Germany after the Kaiser abdicated the throne on November 9th 1918. Revolution from above. Proclaimed that Germany was a parliamentary democracy.
* Beer Hall Putsch
o Hitler/supporters achieved national renown by attempting—albeit failing to overthrow the Weimar government. Originated in a beer hall, won Hitler a wide audience.
o Speeches following during trial for treason/Mein Kampf during Prison stint publicized his racialized view of German political history
* Stab-In-the-Back Legend
o Treaty of Versailles post WW1. Germans pissed at everyone else for Versailles clauses. Especially Germans that signed the treaty—that made it anti-Germany. o Hitler blaming the Jews for Germany losing WW2.
o The effort to improve the physical and intellectual capacities of the population by encouraging individuals with desirable traits to reproduce and/or by discouraging those individuals designated as undesirable from reproducing o November of 1923, it lasted a day o In between WW1 and WW2
* Strength through Joy
o In Nazi Germany. Supervised after-work activities/holidays/leisure time.
o 2 main purposes: 1st to ensure no one had too much time on their hands to get involved in untoward activities against the state. (idle hands might get involved in anti-state misdemeanors); 2nd was to produce an environment w/in Nazi Germany whereby the avg worker would be grateful to the state for providing activities/holidays they typically wouldn't be able to afford
* Rosa Luxemburg
o Directed the revolution from Below in Germany in the Spartacists movement. Inspired by Bolshevik Revolution—condemned the SPD as too moderate. Demanded immediate communist revolution. November 8, 1918—German communists declared establishment of a Soviet Republic in the province of Bavaria and the Red Flag—symbol of communism—flew over 11 German states.
o Catastrophic price increases and currency devaluation—Germany 1923
* NSDAP—Nazi Party
o Nationalist Socialist Germany Workers' Party. Opposed socialism, communism & trade unionism. Like fascism—nationalist, statist, anti-democratic & militarist. Racism—antisemitism—plays central role.
o Early Nazi movement appealed to individuals without power—unemployed ex-soldiers, disaffected youth, small shopkeepers wiped out by post-war inflation, lower middle-class clerks anxious to preserve shaky social status & workers who had lost their jobs.
o Offered simple explanation of history, promise of future glory, & someone to blame for personal & national woes.
* Nuremberg Laws
o 1935—deprived German Jews of citizenship. Declared marriage/sex btwn German Jews/non-Jews a serious crime. By 1938 25% of Germany's population fled country.
* Popular Front
o A political coalition of liberals, socialists & communists to defeat fascist & racist-nationalist political rivals
* Spanish Civil War
o 1931, a democratically elected republican government replaced the Spanish monarchy
o 1936—Popular front government (socialist/communist) took office. Army officers, led by General Francisco Franco (1892-1975)
o Left-wing republican government vs right wing rebels
o 400k men/women died in war, 200k executed by Franco after he took power in March 1939 & est an authoritarian state
* Lebensraum (Living Space)
o Hitler believed that eastern Europe had to be conquered to create a vast German empire for more physical space, a greater population, and new territory to supply food and raw materials.
* Rome-Berlin Axis
o Alliance between Benito Mussolini's Italy & Adolf Hitler's Germany formed in 1936
o British diplomatic & financial efforts to stabilize Germany in 1920s/30s & avoid a 2nd World War
* Neville Chamberlain
o Prime Minister of Britain in late 1930s—pursued a policy og conciliation and negotiation in dealings with Hitler (appeasement)
* Munich Agreement
o Agreement in 1939 between the governments of Nazi Germany, Britain & France that granted Germany sovereignty over the Sudetenland; part of the effort to appease the Nazi government and avoid a 2nd total war in Europe
* German-Soviet Pact (1939)
o Non-aggression pact—signed by Joseph Stalin/Adolf Hitler in 1939, the agreement publicly pledged Germany & the Soviet Union not to attack each other & secretly divided up Poland & the Baltic states between the 2 powers. Also called the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact after the foreign ministers who negotiated it
o Lightning War; an offensive military tactic making use of airplanes, tanks & motorized infantry to punch through enemy defenses & secure key territory. 1st demonstrated by the German army in WW2
* Vichy Regime
o Authoritarian state est in France after defeat by German army in 1940
o Signed an armistice w Germany & pledged collaboration w the Nazi regime
o Confined to the south & to the French colonial regions
* Battle of Stalingrad
o 3rd turning point of 1942, Conquest of Stalingrad would give Germans control over the main waterway for the transport of oil & food from the Caucasus to the rest of the Soviet Union.
o Hitler divided the offensive à widened his from 500-2500 miles. By the time they reached Stalingrad August 23rd—resources were overstretched.
o By November, Soviet Union surrounded Germans. Surrendered on January 30th, 1942
o Germans never made up losses in manpower, material or morale
* Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
o Night of November 9/10 1938 when German Nazis attacked Jewish persons/property. Synagogues/businesses. 30k Jewish males arrested à concentration camps. Goal=emigration
Einsatzgruppen ("Intervention Squads")
o Nazi Special Units of the SS also known as strike forces that totaled approx. 3k men. They were tasked with murdering Jews. They rounded up all Jewish populations in local towns/villages and marched them into a field. They ordered the 1st batch to dig a large ditch, then forced them to strip down and lined them up on the edge of the ditch and shot them at point-blank range. They would do this with the subsequent batches. By the end of the day the ditch would be full of dead or dying bodies. They're final death count has been est. to be 1.5-2 million. This included almost all of the historic Jewish communities in the Baltics/Ukraine.
o Revealed limits of conventional killing methods à led to more efficient methods.
* Heinrich Himmler
o Reich leader of the Nazi's SS from 1929-45. He was Germany's 2nd in command during WW2. He was the key/senior Nazi official responsible for implementing/conceiving the Final Solution.
* Wannsee Conference
o January 20th 1942—Senior German officials met in a villa in Wannsee, outside Berlin. Here, they drew up plans for A a complete genocide which they named the Final Solution.
This marked the beginning of a more systematic approach to the annihilation of European Jews.
o Adolf's attempt to murder all the Jews in Europe in WW2.
o Final Solution/Concentration & Death Camps/Ghettos/Kristallnacht/Intervention Squads
* Final Solution
o The Nazi's plan for a complete genocide of all European Jews
o Plans drawn at the Wanssee Conference
* Adolf Eichmann
o The Desk Murderer. Leader of the Prague Deportation committee (transferring Jews from ghettos à camps). He is most recognized for his capture and subsequent trial in 1960 after fleeing to Argentina during the Nazi Regime's downfall in 1944.
o He was accused of being responsible for the death of millions. His final plea stated that he was just following orders and that he was simply an arm of the state. He made a plea to the Jewish people for forgiveness but never recognized personal responsibility. He was put to death by hanging and labeled guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity. The ideology that lead him to attempt to extinguish an entire people was considered much worse than the actual number killed.
* Displaced Persons (DPs)
o Problem facing post WW2 Europe—refugees
o Stemmed 1st from war itself—millions made homeless by invasions/mass bombings.
o 2nd—Hitler's attempts at racial re-ordering left concentration/death camp survivors stumbling, homeless through Europe.
o 3rd—Peace settlements redrew Germany's boundaries and agreed on a policy of population transfers. This forced 18 million+ out of their homes/homelands & replaced ancient multi-linguistic/ethnic communities w/ ethnically
Germans suffered most as many countries forcibly deported their German populations. 2 million Germans died b/c of this.
* Yalta Conference
o Meeting of The Big Three (Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt) in Yalta, Crimea in February 1945.
o Drew up a contradictory compromise of Eastern Europe—Stalin promised free/democratic elections and C/R agreed they should be Pro-Soviet. Did not define free or democratic. Made no arrangement to regulate/oversee elections.
o Did not resolve issue of Germany's future—left to UN, but they failed. Divided Berlin into occupation Zones controlled by the US, USSR, France & Britain.
* United Nations
o The new international body that replaced the League of Nations. It failed to settle the post-war issues dealing with Germany that had been postponed at the Yalta Conference.
* Iron Curtain
o Metaphor coined by Winston Churchill. Described the ideological political division between western and eastern Europe post WW2.
* Marshall Fund
o Part of the Marshall Plan devised in 1947 by US Secretary of State George Marshall. It was a 4-year plan for European economic reconstruction that included the US sending $13 billion to Europe & the Organization for European Economic Cooperation which worked to eliminate trade barriers & stabilize currencies. If a state accepted aid, it had to join the OEEC—Stalin banned any eastern European state from joining bc he saw it as a US instrument for domination.
* Truman Doctrine
o 1947—in response to Britain being unable to continue assisting the Greek govt's fight against communist rebels. The Doctrine committed the US to a policy of containment—resisting communist expansion wherever in the world it occurred.
* North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
o Created in April 1949, it consisted of 9 western European nations along w Canada/USA. It was a military alliance aimed at repelling a Soviet invasion of western Europe. Counterpart to the Anti-western Warsaw Pact.
* Warsaw Pact
o Eastern European Military Alliance formed in response to the formation of its western counterpart: NATO. Stalin forced his East European satellites into this anti-western military alliance with the Soviet Union. Finalized as the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
* Nikita Khrushchev
o The Soviet Union's premier from 1958-64—during height of Cold War. Initiated de-Stalinization, and played game of nuclear bluff (convincing allies/foes that the USSR had a stronger nuke force than it did.)
o Born to illiterate peasants, trained as an engineer, worked his way to success within the communist system (big reason why he is so faithful/trusting of it). Loud and boisterous—contrasted the reserved Stalin.
o Implemented series of poorly planned reforms, incl. rapid mechanization, massive chemical fertilizer program and plowing of virgin lands. This increased eco damage/soil erosion.
o Policy of De-Stalinization unsettled high-ranking communists—forced out of power in 1964.
o Soviet Union 1956-64—Implemented by Premier Nikita Khrushchev. Describes period of greater openness in Soviet Bloc as govts lifted many controls on speech/publication. Release of 4.5 million+ prisoners from slave labor camps—did not completely rid of Gulags/free prisoners.
o Did not end political/religious/artistic repression & control. Did not rid of collectivization Also limited in economic impact—agriculture, especially, lagged behind the West. Led
to unsuccessful policies that caused ecological damage/soil erosion in Soviet countryside.
o Led to Khrushchev's ejection as premier of USSR.
o Soviet Union 1957—1st successful human-made satellite. Held ominous implications—could the Soviets drop a nuke on US cities if they can launch satellite à space?
* Brezhnev Doctrine
o Eastern Europe/Soviet Union Fall, 1968—Following the Soviet stifling of the Prague Spring, Brezhnev acknowledged that Soviet domination in eastern Europe rested on force alone.
o Formally—a commitment to support global socialism & a promise to use the Red Army to destroy any effort to achieve fundamental change w/in Soviet bloc.
* Prague Spring
o Czechoslovakia 1968—Result of Alexander Dubcek's effort to reform system from top that merged with wider popular protest movement that had arisen among intellectuals, artists, students & workers. It was the blossoming of political/social freedoms throughout Czechoslovakia, esp. in capital Prague.
o Influenced rest of Eastern Europe to follow suit. Communist leaders saw it as a threat and was stifled on August 20-21 by 80k troops.
o Resulted in the Brezhnev Doctrine
o Belief that personal wellbeing and happiness depends, largely, on the level of personal consumption, particularly on the purchase of the material goods
o Especially between the Soviet Union & the United States post WW2 and throughout the Cold War—see The Kitchen Debates
* European Economic Community (EEC) The Common Market
o 1957—Free-trade zone across member boundaries
o joined with the European Union in 1993 to create the European Community (EC)
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