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WH Chapter 12: Crusades and Culture in the Middle Ages
Terms in this set (53)
The Canterbury Tales by Jeffry Chaucer are written in English, they are an example of what kind of literature?
During the Crusades of the Black Death there was a rise in antisemitism. What do we call false accusations?
What Italian city was the first to have a university in Europe?
What european country fought a war against France then against themselves?
During the Crusades, Christians were marching off to try to recapture what city from the Muslims?
Muslims were led by who when they recaptured Jerusalem?
One result of the Crusades was the ending of that earlier form of government?
What power couple married to strengthen Spain?
Isabella and Ferdinand
Whats the collective name for this series of Holy Wars fought between the Christians and the Muslims?
Who was the hero of the battle of orleans?
Joan of Arch
What was the name of the court that the church set up to try heretics?
the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
~~Pope Gregory VII denied to fight this~~
Pope Gregory VII
~Gregory elected pope in 1073
~he was convinced he was chosen by God to reform the Church
~claimed that he was truly God's "vicar on earth"
~believed that only by eliminating lay investiture could the Church regain its freedom
~~~Then the Church would be able to appoint clergy and run its own affairs. If rulers did not accept this, the pope would remove them.~~~
Gregory VII soon found himself in conflict with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany, over these claims
~1075 he issued a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leader
~ Henry had no intention of obeying a papal decree that challenged the heart of his administration.
The struggle between Henry IV and Gregory VII, known as the Investiture Controversy, was one of the great conflicts between church and state in the High Middle Ages.
It dragged on until a new German king and a new pope reached a compromise known as the Concordat of Worms in 1122
The Church Supreme
~inclined to strengthen papal power and build a strong administrative system.
~Pope Innocent III had a strong belief in papal supremacy- church reached height of political power
~Innocent used the spiritual weapons at his command
~Goal was to cause the people under interdiction, who were deprived of the comforts of religion, to exert pressure against their ruler
a decree by the pope that forbade priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to the people
a christian rite
New Religious Orders
rise in the number of monasteries and the emergence of new monastic orders.
~one of the most important new orders
~founded by a group of monks who were unhappy with the lack of discipline at their own Benedictine monastery
~Cistercians ate a simple diet, and each had only a single robe. All decorations were eliminated from their churches and monastic buildings.
~More time for prayer and manual labor was gained by spending fewer hours at religious services
~played a major role in developing a new, activistic spiritual model for twelfth-century Europe
Women in Religious Orders
~most nuns were from the ranks of the landed aristocracy
~Convents were convenient for families who were unable or unwilling to find husbands for their daughter or for aristocratic women who did not choose to marry, or widows
Hildegard of Bingen
~became abbess of a religious house for females in western Germany.
~was one of the first important women composers.
~She was an important contributor to the body of music known as Gregorian chant.
~Her work is remarkable because she succeeded at a time when music was almost exclusively the domain of men.
~religion founded by Francis of Assisi.
~he was born to a wealthy Italian merchant
~After having been imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spiritual experiences which led him to abandon all worldly goods and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food.
~his followers all of took vows of absolute poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for their food.
~Franciscans became very popular.
~They lived among the people, preaching repentance and aiding the poor.
~The Franciscans also undertook missionary work, first throughout Italy and then to all parts of Europe and the Muslim world.
~Dominican religion was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzmán
~wanted to defend Church teachings from heresy
~The spiritual revival led to the emergence of heresies within the Church.
~Adherents of these movements were called heretics. ~Heretical movements became especially widespread in southern France.
~believed that a new religious order of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectively would best be able to attack heresy.
the denial of basic Church doctrines
~The Church created a court called the Inquisition, or Holy Office, to deal with heretics.
~developed a regular procedure to find and try heretics.
~Dominicans became especially well known for their roles as examiners of people suspected of heresy.
~Those who confessed to heresy performed public penance and received punishment, such as flogging. ~added the element of torture to extract confessions.
~Those who did not confess but were still considered guilty and those who had done penance for heresy and then relapsed were subject to execution by the state.
~Christians believed the only path to salvation was through the Church.
Religion in the High Middle Ages
~The Catholic Church was a big part of ordinary people's lives from birth to death.
~sacraments were seen as means for receiving God's grace and were necessary for salvation.
~Ordinary people also venerated saints—men and women who, because of their holiness, were believed to have achieved a special position in Heaven.
~ believed that saints could ask for favors before the throne of God for people who prayed to them, saints were very popular with all Christians.
~Mary, who was the mother of Jesus, was the most highly regarded in the High Middle Ages.
bones or other objects connected with saints; considered to be worthy of worship by the faithful
The Early Crusades prt 1
~The Crusades started when the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus asked for help against the Seljuk Turks-Muslims who had taken control of Asia Minor
~Pope Urban II saw an opportunity to provide leadership for a great cause.
~That cause was rallying Europe's warriors to free Jerusalem and the Holy Land from people whom Christians viewed as infidels
~At the Council of Clermont in southern France, Urban II asked Christians to take up their weapons and join in a holy war.
~pope promised: "All who die . . . shall have immediate forgiveness of sins."
~Alexius I, and his daughter, Anna Comnena (who was also the Byzantines' only female historian), were fearful that the western crusading armies, which would have to go through Byzantine lands to reach their objective, might prove harmful to the Byzantine Empire.
The Early Crusades prt 2
~the First Crusade began as three organized bands of mostly French warriors made their way to the East.
~The crusading army captured Antioch
~they proceeded down the Palestinian coast, avoiding the well-defended coastal cities, and reached Jerusalem
~The Holy City was taken amid a horrible massacre of its inhabitants.
~ crusaders organized four Latin crusader states in the East. ~kingdom of Jerusalem under Godfrey de Bouillon Frankish leaders of the First Crusade
~he rejected the title of king, protesting that it belonged only to God
~depended on Italian cities for supplies.
~not easy, for the crusader kingdoms to maintain themselves in the East.
~the Muslims had begun to strike back.
The fall of one of the Latin kingdoms to the Muslims led to calls for another crusade, especially from the monastic leader Bernard of Clairvaux.
~Bernard managed to enlist two powerful rulers, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, in a Second Crusade.
~This campaign, however, was a total failure.
~Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under Saladin.
~Saladin had made himself sultan of Egypt and became leader of the Muslim offensive against the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem.
~after his success three European rulers then agreed to lead a Third Crusade:
~~~German emperor Frederick Barbarossa
~~English king Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted)
~~French king Philip II Augustus.
~Frederick drowned in a local river.
~The English and French arrived by sea and captured the coastal cities but were unable to move inland.
~After Philip returned home, Richard negotiated a settlement with Saladin that permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem.
military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
an unbeliever; a term applied to the Muslims during the Crusades
The Later Crusades prt 1
~after Saladin's death, Pope Innocent III initiated the Fourth Crusade.
~the crusading army became involved in a fight over the Byzantine throne.
~ The Venetian leaders of the Crusade used the situation to weaken their greatest commercial competitor, the Byzantine Empire.
~crusaders sacked Constantinople adding to the division between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church
~Western forces also set up a new Latin empire of Constantinople.
~1261 Byzantine army recapture the city
~It now comprised the city of Constantinople and its surrounding lands, as well as part of Asia Minor.
~The empire limped along for another 190 years, until its weakened condition enabled the Ottoman Turks to conquer
~In Germany a youth known as Nicholas of Cologne announced that God had inspired him to lead a "children's crusade" to the Holy Land.
~Thousands of young people joined Nicholas and made their way down the Rhine and across the Alps to Italy, where the pope told them to go home.
~a group of about 20,000 French children headed to Marseille, where two shipowners agreed to take them to the Holy Land.
~Seven ships filled with youths left the port. Two of the ships went down in a storm. The other five sailed to North Africa, where the children were sold into slavery.
a written or an oral defamatory statement or representation that conveys an unjustly unfavorable impression
The Later Crusades prt 2
~next Crusades of adult warriors
~The last two major Crusades were organized by the king of France, Louis IX
~After his defeat by Baybars, the sultan of Egypt, Louis tried again but died of the plague without any conquests.
~the Crusades benefited the Italian port cities. Even without the Crusades, Italian merchants would have increased trade with the Eastern world.
~Crusades had unfortunate side effects on European society.
~The first widespread attacks on the Jews began in the context of the Crusades.
~ Jews of medieval Europe came to be subjected to periodic libels, attacks, and expulsions.
~Perhaps the greatest impact of the Crusades was political. ~They eventually helped to break down feudalism.
~As kings levied taxes and raised armies, nobles joining the Crusades sold their lands and freed their serfs.
~Taxing trade with the East provided kings with new sources of wealth.
~This paved the way for the development of true nation-states.
~By the mid-1400s, three strong nation-states—Spain, England, and France—had emerged in Europe.
~dramatic building of churches in Europe
~cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style ~Romanesque churches normally followed the basilica shape of churches built in the late Roman Empire.
~Romanesque builders replaced the basilica's flat wooden roof with a long, round, arched vault made of stone (called a barrel vault) or with a cross vault, in which two barrel vaults intersected.
~The builder used the cross vault to create a church plan in the shape of a cross. Because stone roofs were extremely heavy, these churches required massive pillars and walls to hold them up. This left little space for windows, so Romanesque churches were dark inside.
~Gothic cathedral remains one of the greatest artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages.
~ Two basic innovations made Gothic cathedrals possible.
~One innovation was the replacement of the round barrel vault with a combination of ribbed vaults and pointed arches.
~Builders could now make Gothic churches higher, giving a sense of upward movement, as if the building is reaching to God.
~Another technical innovation was the flying buttress—a heavy, arched support of stone built onto the outside of the walls.
~Flying buttresses made it possible to distribute the weight of the church's vaulted ceilings outward and down. ~This eliminated the heavy walls needed in Romanesque churches to hold the weight of the massive barrel vaults. ~Gothic cathedrals were built, then, with relatively thin walls filled with stained glass windows.
~These windows depict religious scenes and scenes from daily life.
~colored glass windows create a play of light inside the cathedral that varies with the sun at different times of the day.
~bears witness to an age when most people believed in a spiritual world.
The word university comes from the Latin word universitas, meaning "corporation" or "guild.
~first European university appeared in Bologna Italy.
~Students, men only, came from all parts of Europe to learn law from the great teacher Irnerius
~The University of Paris was the first university in northern Europe.
~people left Paris and started a university at Oxford, England.
~~~~Students began their studies with the traditional liberal arts—grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Teachers lectured by reading from a basic text and adding explanations. After four to six years, students took oral examinations to earn a bachelor of arts degree and later a master of arts. After about ten more years, students earned a doctor of law, medicine, or theology~~~~
~The most highly regarded subject was theology
~it was strongly influenced by a philosophical system known as scholasticism.
~Scholasticism tried to reconcile faith and reason—to show that faith was in harmony with reason.
~Its chief task was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers.
~ Aristotle reached his conclusions by rational thought, not by faith, and his ideas sometimes contradicted Church teachings.
~demonstrate how the truths of faith are compatible with reason. In fact, Anselm made an argument to prove by reason the existence of God.
the study of religion and God
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
~Thomas Aquinas made the most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of Christianity. ~best known for his Summa Theologica ("summa" was a summary of all knowledge on a topic).
~His masterpiece followed a logical method of scholarly investigation. Aquinas first posed a question such as, "Does God exist?"
~He then cited opposing opinions before coming to his own conclusions. He believed that truths arrived at through reason or faith could not conflict with each other.
~Reason, without faith, could only reveal truths about the physical world, not spiritual truths.
~Aquinas also believed, however, that humans, by using reason, could arrive at natural law, which is part of God's eternal law, and determine what is inherently good or evil.
~request of Pope Clement IV, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote Opus Majus, an encyclopedia advocating a reformation of all sciences including logic, mathematics, physics, experimentation, and philosophy. Bacon emphasized the importance of mathematics for the study of philosophy.
~Latin was the universal language of medieval civilization. ~new literature was being written in the vernacular— the language of everyday speech in a particular region, such as Spanish, French, English, or German.
~market for vernacular literature appeared in the twelfth century when educated people at courts and in the cities took an interest in new sources of entertainment.
Perhaps the most popular vernacular literature of the twelfth century was troubadour poetry, which was chiefly the product of nobles and knights. This poetry told of the love of a knight for a lady, who inspires him to become a braver knight and a better poet.
Another type of vernacular literature was known as the chanson de geste, or heroic epic. The earliest and finest example of such literature is The Song of Roland, which appeared around 1100 and was written in French. The chief events described in heroic epic poems are battles in which knights fight courageously for their kings and lords.
In the fourteenth century, the English author Geoffrey Chaucer used the English vernacular in his famous work The Canterbury Tales. This work consists of a collection of stories told by a group of 29 pilgrims, representing a range of English society, as they journeyed to the tomb of Saint Thomas á Becket at Canterbury, England.
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
chanson de geste
a type of vernacular literature, this heroic epic was popular in medieval Europe and described battles and political contests
The Black Death
Toward the end of the thirteenth century, noticeable changes in weather patterns were occurring as Europe entered a period that has been called a "little ice age." A drop in overall temperatures led to shorter growing seasons and bad weather conditions. Between 1315 and 1317, heavy rains in northern Europe destroyed harvests and caused food shortages, resulting in extreme hunger and starvation. The Great Famine expanded to other parts of Europe as well. Famine might have led to chronic malnutrition and in turn to higher susceptibility to disease because malnourished people are less able to resist infection. This might help explain the high mortality of the great plague known as the Black Death, the most devastating natural disaster in European history.
Bubonic plague was the most common form of the Black Death. It was spread by black rats infested with fleas carrying a deadly bacterium. Italian merchants brought the plague with them from Kaffa, on the Black Sea, to the island of Sicily in October 1347. The plague had spread to southern Italy and southern France by the end of 1347. Usually, the path of the Black Death followed trade routes. In 1348 and 1349, the plague spread through France, the Low Countries (modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), and Germany. It ravaged England in 1349 and expanded to northern Europe and Scandinavia. Eastern Europe and Russia were affected by 1351.
Black Death prt 2
Out of a total European population of 75 million, possibly more than one-third of the population died of the plague between 1347 and 1351. Especially hard hit were Italy's crowded cities, where 50 to 60 percent of the people died. In England and Germany, entire villages disappeared.
People did not know what caused the plague. Many believed that God sent it as punishment for their sins or that the devil caused it. Extreme reactions led to anti-Semitism, or hostility toward Jews, who were sometimes falsely accused of causing the plague by poisoning town wells.
The death of so many people had economic consequences. Trade declined, and a shortage of workers caused a dramatic rise in the price of labor. At the same time, the decline in the number of people lowered the demand for food, resulting in falling prices. Landlords were now paying more for labor while their incomes from rents were declining. Some peasants bargained with their lords to pay rent instead of owing services. This change freed them from serfdom, an institution that had been declining throughout the High Middle Ages.
Decline of Church Power
How did the Great Schism and other crises lead to the decline of Church power?
The popes reached the height of their power in the 1200s. In the 1300s, the Church encountered a series of problems. These problems led to a decline in the Church's power.
The Popes at Avignon
European kings had begun to reject papal claims of supremacy by the end of the 1200s. The struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France had serious consequences for the papacy.
Philip claimed the right to tax the clergy. Boniface argued that taxing the clergy required the pope's consent, because popes were supreme over both Church and state. Philip rejected the pope's position and sent French forces to Italy to bring Boniface back to France for trial. The pope escaped but died soon afterward. Philip then engineered the election of a Frenchman, Clement V, as pope in 1305. Clement took up residence in Avignon (a • veen • YOHN), in southern France. From 1305 to 1377, the popes lived in Avignon.
Sentiments against the papacy grew during this time. Many believed that the pope as bishop of Rome should reside in Rome, not in Avignon. The splendor in which the pope and cardinals were living in Avignon also led to criticism. At last, Pope Gregory XI, perceiving the disastrous decline in papal prestige, returned to Rome in 1377.
The Great Schism prt 1
Gregory XI died soon after his return to Rome. When the cardinals met to elect a new pope at the behest of the citizens of Rome, they elected an Italian, Pope Urban VI. Five months later, a group of French cardinals declared the election invalid and chose a Frenchman as pope. This pope returned to Avignon.
Because Urban remained in Rome, there were now two popes, beginning the Great Schism of the Church. Lasting from 1378 to 1417, the Great Schism divided Europe. France and its allies supported the pope in Avignon; England and its allies supported the pope in Rome.
In addition to creating political conflict, the Great Schism damaged the Church. The pope was believed to be the true leader of Christendom. When each line of popes denounced the other as the Antichrist (one who opposes Christ), people's faith in both the papacy and the Church were undermined. The situation became worse when an effort to resolve the problem in 1409 resulted in the simultaneous reign of three popes. A Church council finally met at Constance, Switzerland, and ended the schism in 1417. The competing popes either resigned or were deposed. A new pope, acceptable to all, was then elected.
The Great Schism prt 2
Meanwhile, these crises in the Catholic Church led to calls for reform. In England, John Wyclif's disgust with clerical corruption led him to a far-ranging attack on papal authority. Because of a marriage between the royal families of England and Bohemia, Wyclif's ideas spread to a group of Czech reformers led by John Hus. They called for an end to clerical corruption and to excessive papal power within the Church. Hus was accused of heresy by the Council of Constance and burned at the stake in 1415. In response, the Czechs led a revolutionary upheaval in Bohemia that was not crushed until 1436. Hus's ideas would later have an impact on the German monk Martin Luther.
By the early 1400s, then, the Church had lost much of its political power. The pope could no longer assert supremacy over the state. Although Christianity remained central to medieval life, the papacy and the Church had lost much of their authority.
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