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WH Chapter 12: Crusades and Culture in the Middle Ages

Terms in this set (53)

~the First Crusade began as three organized bands of mostly French warriors made their way to the East.
~The crusading army captured Antioch
~they proceeded down the Palestinian coast, avoiding the well-defended coastal cities, and reached Jerusalem
~The Holy City was taken amid a horrible massacre of its inhabitants.

~ crusaders organized four Latin crusader states in the East. ~kingdom of Jerusalem under Godfrey de Bouillon Frankish leaders of the First Crusade
~he rejected the title of king, protesting that it belonged only to God
~depended on Italian cities for supplies.

~not easy, for the crusader kingdoms to maintain themselves in the East.
~the Muslims had begun to strike back.
The fall of one of the Latin kingdoms to the Muslims led to calls for another crusade, especially from the monastic leader Bernard of Clairvaux.

~Bernard managed to enlist two powerful rulers, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, in a Second Crusade.
~This campaign, however, was a total failure.

~Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under Saladin.
~Saladin had made himself sultan of Egypt and became leader of the Muslim offensive against the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem.
~after his success three European rulers then agreed to lead a Third Crusade:
~~~German emperor Frederick Barbarossa
~~English king Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted)
~~French king Philip II Augustus.

~Frederick drowned in a local river.
~The English and French arrived by sea and captured the coastal cities but were unable to move inland.
~After Philip returned home, Richard negotiated a settlement with Saladin that permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem.