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The Ultimate BIO 106 Final Exam Study Guide

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_____ exercise occurs when you can manage to get a steady supply of oxygen to the muscle cells.
aerobic
In an isotonic solution, the number of particles of particles is ______.
equal
The tentative explanation to be tested is called:
the hypothesis
The enzyme pancrease is given to patients that have difficulties producing pancreatic enzymes in order to aid digestion. Pancrease like all enzymes serve as biological catalysts aiding _____.
in speeding up metabolic reactions
The biologically important properties of water are due to these attributes of water:
- polarity
- hydrogen bonding
- liquid at room temperature
- high heat of vaporization
Neuralgia cells:
- oligodendrocytes
- microglia cells
- astrocytes
The information collected during the experiment or observation is called:
the data
_____ involves uncontrollable cell division.
cancer
The ____ is a structure found in eukaryotic cells that houses the genetic material.
nucleus
In water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and:
an oxygen atom in a different molecule
The ____ is a stack of slightly curved saccules that are important in packaging and secretion.
golgi apparatus
fat
subcutaneous layer
sense organs
dermis
keratinization
epidermis
hair follicle
dermis
In cytology homeostasis refers to:
the maintainance of an internal environment of a cell that varies only within certain limits
_____ receives sensory input, integrates data, and conducts impulses.
nervous tissue
Nails, hair, and glands are:
structures of epidermal origin
Joining small molecules (monomers) together to form longer chains (polymers) requires a process called _____.
dehydration reaction
_____ allows rapid change in one direction and does not achieve stability.
positive feedback
Lysosomes function in ________.
intracellular digestion
Human beings are part of the biosphere.
True
Human beings are included in one of the four eukaryotic kingdoms.
True
Human beings are classified as animals, vertebrates, and mammals.
True
Of any living animal, human beings are most closely related to apes.
True
_____ glands are considered ductless glands, and ______ glands are considered duct glands.
exocrine, endocrine
The smallest unit of an element that still remains the chemical and physical properties of that element is called:
an atom
The formation of _____ bonds involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another nearby atom.
ionic
Two or more atoms that combine are defined as _____.
a molecule
A function of the integument involves:
- protection from pathogens
- inhibition of water loss
- regulation of body temperature
- synthesis of vitamin D
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to:
synthesize proteins
Order of increasing complexity/organization:
- cells
- tissues
- organs
- organ systems
- organism
An obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA is called the _____.
nucleolus
_______ form the myelin sheath around nerve fibers outside the brain and spinal cord.
schwann cells
A group that goes through all of the steps of an experiment but does not contain the variable being tested is called:
the control group
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as _____.
facilitated transport
Proteins are comprised of:
amino acids
The network or sphere of life on the planet is called the:
biosphere
Statistical studies are critical:
- to find important correlations
- in evaluating numerical data from various sources
- because humans cannot participate in many experiments
- but also have limitations
The active site of an enzyme:
- is the part of an enzyme where the substrate fits
- can be used over and over again
The function of the plasma membrane is:
- to determine which substances enter and leave the cells
- serves as a boundary between the cells and its environment
- contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts its environment
One of the dangers of smoking is that it disrupts the mucosoidal escalator system in the trachea. This defensive system utilizes ciliary action of specialized epithelia known as _____ and mucus to prevent potentially harmful substances from entering the lungs.
pseudostratified epithelium
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called:
osmosis
A concept based on conclusions of observations and experimentation that joins together well-supported and related hypotheses is called:
a scientific theory
Tight junctions are associated with ____.
cardiac muscle
The following system helps maintain homeostasis:
digestive
This process requires oxygen:
electron transport chain
Glycolysis occurs within the _____ and the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain occur within the _____.
cytoplasm, mitochondrian
The type of tissue that covers body surfaces and lines body cavities is:
epithelial tissue
The folds in mitochondrial membranes are called:
cristae
When you put your hand on a hot stove, ____ receive signals from the sensory receptors or other neurons and _____ conduct nerve impulses.
dendrites, axons
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of ____ and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing _____.
proteins, phospholipids
The dermatologist explained to Chris that blackheads actually involved the ____ glands.
sebaceous
Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function are called:
tissues
The sums of all of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell collectively are called:
metabolism
_____ is the storage from of glucose found in plants; _____ is the storage form of glucose in animals.
starch; glycogen
The three major components of connective tissue are _____.
- cells
- ground substance
- protein fibers
Basic tissue types:
- epithelial
- connective
- muscle
- nervous
Phospholipids have ___ fatty acids.
two
The formed elements of the blood include:
- erythrocytes
- platelets
- leukocytes
______ can be found at the ends of the long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages.
hyaline cartilage
All of the changes that occur from the time an egg is fertilized through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood is called:
development
When you eat a large meal, ____ processes convert the food into nutrients and energy.
metabolic
Glucose breakdown leads to ______.
ATP buildup
Sheree observed an amoeba feeding by engulfing the prey with its false feet or pseudopods. This process is nkown as:
phagocytosis
____ connective tissue is partially responsible for the expandability of the lungs.
loose fibrous (areolar)
Atoms that share electrons have ____ bonds.
covalent
The building block molecules of polysaccharides are:
monosaccharides
In an acidic solution:
the number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-
In epithelial tissues, the _____ serves to anchor the epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue.
basement membrane
ATP carries energy in the form of:
high-energy phosphate bonds
In organisms, ____ are responsible for directing development so that an offspring resembles its parents.
genes
_____ are basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means.
elements
The semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that dissolves molecules between the nucleus and cell membrane is called:
cytoplasm
The internal structures of a cell that maintain its shape and allow it to move are called:
cytoskeletons
_____ are the fundamental units that make up all living things.
cells
The endeavor that, by using observable and objective means, strives to help human beings understand the natural world is referred to as:
science
____ is responsible for the waterproofing of skin.
keratin
The scientific study of life is called:
biology
The nitrogenous base NOT found in DNA:
uracil
The vertebral column in order from the neck down include the:
cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, and coccyx
Theh higher the concentrations of salts in the blood, the ____ the blood volume and the ____ the blood pressure.
greater, higher
The layers of the epiphyseal plate include:
-resting zone
- proliferating zone
- degenerating zone
- ossification zone
The ____ is very important in the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
- nephron loop
The sternum is comprised of the:
manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
The process of urination is also called:
micturition
_____ is another term for breathing.
ventilation
The _____ are a double-layered membrane that encloses each lung.
pleurae
A muscle that moves the arms forward and across the chest is:
pectoralis major
Endochondral ossification
cartilaginous models
Intramembraneous ossification
sheets of connective tissue
Endochondrial ossification
associated with the epiphyseal plate in long bones, such as the femur
Intramembraneous ossification
results in the trabeculae of spongy bone
The contractile unit of a muscle fiber is called a:
sarcomere
The function(s) of an osteoclast is(are) _____.
- breakdown of bone
- deposition of calcium in blood
The slit that lies between the vocal cords is known as the ___.
glottis
Cardiac muscle is:
found in the heart
Smooth muscle is:
NOT found in the muscles of the arm
Skeletal muscle can:
be found in the arms and legs
Smooth muscle:
lines blood vessels
The respiratory gases diffuse through ____.
capillaries
Rotation moves a part:
around its own axis
____ is the primary nitrogenous end product of humans.
urea
____ is a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction.
acetylcholine
The windpipe is more accurately called the ____.
trachea
The alveoli of human lungs are lined with a surfactant. This surfactant:
is a film of lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension, thus preventing closure
The scapula is part of the ____ skeleton, while the sternum is part of the _____ skeleton.
appendicular, axial
Jen's grandmother suffered from a loss in bone mass and bone weakness. Unfortunately she broke her hip as the result of these symptoms. She was suffering from _____.
osteoporosis
A muscle which opposes the action of another muscle is called the:
antagonist
The CSI agent determined the age of the victim based upon:
- the amount of yellow, brittle, and missing cartilage
- the conditions of the joints
- the dentition
- the ossification of the skull bones
The urinary system is important in the regulation of ____.
- water content of the body
- blood volume of the body
- pH of the blood
The _____ is a cuplike structure that is part of the closed end of a nephron.
glomerular capsule
The muscle that raises the scapula (like shrugging the shoulders) and pulls the head backwards.
trapezium
During muscle contraction:
ADP and P release causes the head to change position and actin filaments move
Dangers of smoking cigarettes:
- children of parents that smoke have a greater chance of developing asthma
- cigarette smokers have an increased chance of developing lung cancer
- chewing tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking
- cigarette smoking can destroy cilia that serve to filtar the air
The process of breathing in is called _____, and the process of breathing out is called ____.
inspiration, expiration
Manny choked because a morsel of food slipped by his ____ that normally guards the superior opening of the larynx.
epiglottis
The axial skeleton includes the:
- facial bones
- coccyx
- rib cage
- sternum
Three steps/processes involved in urine formation?
- glomerular filtration
- tubular reabsorption
- tubular secretion
Chronological order for bone repair:
(1) hematoma
(2) cartilagenous callus
(3) bony callus
(4) remodeling
The ____ is a dense white covering on the outside of bone.
periosteum
Scott does not understand why alcohol consumption increases urine production. How is this simply explained?
alcohol inhibits ADH causing diuresis
Because the response of a muscle cell to a stimulus is complete, not partial, it is described as:
the all-or-none theory
If the blood becomes too alkaline, then:
fewer hydrogen ions are excreted, and fewer sodium and bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed
A muscle which does most of the work during a specific action is called the:
prime mover
The spinal cord passes through the ____.
foramen magnum
A single muscle contraction that lasts only a fraction of a second is called a:
muscle twitch
The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the:
ureter
Upon examining some old deer and bison bones, it was discovered that they were broken in half to expose the medullary cavity that at one time had been filled with yellow bone marrow. The bones were broken to provide ____ in the diet of the user.
fat
The continual release of renin by the juxtaglomerular apparatus leads to:
the development of hypertension
Excretion primarily rids the body of:
substances that were involved in metabolism
Most of the carbon dioxide carried in the plasma is found in ____.
biocarbonate ions
The end of the muscle that is attached to the stationary bone is called the ____.
origin
The muscle that extends the thigh back is called the:
gluteus maximus
The function of the urethra is to connect the urinary bladder to the:
exterior of the body
____ are thin plates or struts typically associated with spongy bone.
trabeculae
The first cervical vertebrae is called the ____, and the second cervical vertebrae is called the _____.
atlas, axis
The site of gas exchange in the lungs is called _____.
alveoli
The outer layer of the kidney is called the ____, and the inner layer of the kidney is called the ____.
renal cortex, renal medulla
The process of filtering or removing duct and other particles in the upper respiratory tract is accomplished by:
- mucous
- nasal hairs
- cilia
The expanded region near the end of a long bone is called the ____.
epiphysis
Proper functioning of a neuromuscular junction requires the:
- presence of acetylcholine
- presence of synaptic cleft
- presence of a motor terminal
- sarcolemma of a muscle cell
Heather had urea and other metabolic waste products in her blood and was diagnosed with ____.
uremia
In humans, the lungs inflate because of:
contraction of the diaphragm and rib muscles
____ connect bone to muscle and ____ connect bone to bone.
tendons, ligaments
Sequence of blood vessels about the kidney tubule:
afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary, venule, renal vein
Myosin binds to actin:
upon the release of calcium ions from storage sacs and by means of cross-bridges
Nervous stimulation of muscles:
- occurs at a neuromuscular junction
- results in an impulse that travels down the t tubules
- causes calcium to be released from the sarcomplasmic reticulum
The gangster movies call a dead person a stiff. Rigor mortis is the proper name. How does this occur?
- Without ATP, muscles remain fixed in their last state of contraction
A bacterial disorder that reduces the elasticity of the lungs is ____. This lung disorder is very virulent.
tuberculosis
Sequence of air movement during inspiration:
Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
Creatine phosphate
anaerobic
Cellular respiration
aerobic
Oxygen debt
anaerobic
The ____ is the respiratory control center of the brain.
medulla oblongata
____ joints are freely movable joints.
synovial
The muscle that brings the arm down and backward behind the body:
lattismus dorsi
In the kidneys, ____ serve to filter blood and produce urine.
nephrons
John was diagnosed with _____ that is the infection of the kidneys.
pyelonephritis
The ____ houses the vocal cords.
larynx
The glomerulus:
- blood pressure primarilly accounts for filtration
- composed of capillaries
- connected to arterioles at both ends
- surrounded by the glomerular capsule
____ are sheets of connective tissue that extend beyond the muscle.
fascia
Air passing along the respiratory tract to the lungs is:
- cleansed
- warmed
- moistened
The function(s) of the digestive system is (are) ______.
- to ingest food
- to digest food into small nutrients so that molecules can pass through membranes
- to absorb nutrients molecules
- to eliminate indigestible remains
The ____ serve as reservoirs for blood.
veins
The structure that initiates the normal contraction impulse in the heart and is known as the pacemaker:
SA node
_____ pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxing and _____ pressure occurs when the heart ejects blood.
diastolic, systolic
____ are plasma proteins that when activated aid in the proper clotting of blood.
fibrinogens
The hormone _____ produced in the kidneys stimulates production of red blood cells.
erythropoietin
Cytotoxic T cells contain _____ molecules that punch holes in the plasma membranes of potential pathogens.
perforin
Shelley noticed that cardiac muscle possessed intercalated discs. She determined that these structures were important in allowing heart muscle cells to:
simultaneously contract
Functions of the adult liver:
- produce bile
- detoxify alcohol
- store glucose
- produce urea
Robby has type B positive blood, thus he will possess:
- B antigens
- antibody A
- Rh antigen
Plasma proteins such as albumens are important in establishing the ____ pressure of the blood.
osmotic
The layers of the gastrointestinal tract wall from the inside layer outward in order are:
(1) mucosa
(2) submucosa
(3) muscularis
(4) serosa
Immunity is based on the recognition of antibody stimulating entities known as:
antigens
The innermost layer of an artery is known as the _____.
endothelium
The _____ is a muscular tube that passes foodstuffs from the mouth to the stomach.
esophagus
Hemoglobin is:
- found in RBC
- an oxygen transporter
- required for cellular respiration
- the pigment that makes blood red
The internal conduction system of the heart:
- SA node is on the superior dorsal wall of the right atrium
- the AV node is at the base of the right atrium
- the AV bundle has two branches
- SA node sends an impulse to the AV node
Hepatitis __ is usually acquired through tainted blood. It can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver failure and death. There is no vaccine for this form of hepatitis.
C
Mr. Thompson is suffering from pain and pressure in the chest and left arm, neck, jaw, and shoulder. These could be symptoms of ____.
angina pectoris
The amino acids that must be consumed in the diet are called essential. Nonessential amino acids:
are stored in the body until needed
The cardiologist informed Mr. Kirk that he had an enlarged P wave as the result of bicuspid (mitral) valve stenosis. The P wave indicates that the atria:
are about to contract
Nonspecific defenses:
- barriers to entry
- inflammatory reaction
- natural kiler cells
- protective proteins
Dr. Nelson explained to Jena and Seth that there was a danger of hemolytic disease of the newborn. This occurs when:
the mother is Rh negative, the father is Rh positive, and the baby is Rh positive
Mark suffers from nosebleeds and gastrointestinal bleeding due to increased breakdown of platelets outside the marrow. This is called:
thrombocytopenia
Viruses are capable of multiplying in a host cell because:
viral DNA instructs the cell to produce more of the virus
____ are organisms such as viruses and bacteria that are capable of causing disease.
pathogens
Tom's allergies were so bad that he went to his physician. Upon analysis of his leukocyte count, his ____ and ____ levels were above normal.
eosinophil, basophil
Prions cause degenerative diseases of the ____ system.
nervous
The dentist explained that dental caries or cavities were caused by:
bacteria in the mouth metabolizing sugar
The broad band of loosed connective tissue beneath the mucosa that contains blood vessels, lymph, and nerves is called the:
submucosa
The fragmentation of very large megakaryocytes results in the production of:
platelets
At the site of the cut, Rick was experiencing redness, swelling, pain, and warmth. These symptoms are part of the ____.
inflammatory response
Chad was concerned about eating foods with a high glycemic index because these foods:
can cause a rapid increase in blood glucose
Hormone secreted by the stomach to digest proteins is:
gastrin
A digestive hormone that causes the liver to increase its production of bile and the gallbladder to release stored bile is:
CCK
The physician explained that Sonny suffered from a ballooning or bulging of a blood vessel or ______.
aneurysm
Jennifer possesses type O blood and is considered:
the universal donor
In the small intestines, ____ serves as an emulsifying agent.
bile
Substances found in blood plasma:
- dissolved O2, CO2, ions
- glucose, amino acids
- urea
- plasma proteins
After testing and displaying symptoms of chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain, Jim was diagnosed with ____.
inflammatory bowel syndrome
Agglutination refers to the process of:
clumping of red blood cells
The blood vessels that are the only ones small, thin, and porous enough to exchange substances at the tissue level of organization:
capillaries
The enzyme that initiates the process of starch digestion is:
salivary amylase
Lymphocytes travel to the ____ to become mature T lymphocytes:
thymus
Mr. Everett suffered from a thrombus. If the thrombus dislodges and enters the bloodstream, it becomes a/an _____.
embolus
The final reaction in blood clotting is:
fibrinogen to fibrin
____ are proteins produced by cells that are infected by a virus that serves to warn local non-infected cells.
interferons
In ____ immunity, the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens, and in ____ immunity the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.
active, passive
The ____ system drains blood from the capillary beds of the digestive tract to a capillary bed in the liver.
hepatic portal
The primary function of the stomach is:
to store food, churn, begin digestion
The most abundant type of white blood cells that are also the first to respond to an infection are _____. These leukocytes are also polymorphonucleated.
neutrophils
The role of HCL in the stomach is:
to increase the effectiveness of pepsin
Positive contributions of some bacteria:
- can serve as decomposers in the environment
- important in the wine, cheese, and bread industries
- important in biotechnology
- beneficial residents of the digestive tract
The upper chambers of the heart are known as the:
atria
____ is an enzyme secreted by the pancreas that works in the small intestines in order to begin the digestion of proteins.
trypsin
A stent is:
a cylinder of expandable metal mesh that is positioned inside a coronary artery
The major function of the colon is:
to form feces
The rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract that allow movement of foodstuffs are called:
peristalysis
____ give rise to the components of the blood.
multipotent stem cells
Blood pressure ____ with distance from the left ventricle.
decreases
In the hereditary disorder, _____, red blood cells are misshapen and have difficulty negotiating capillaries. The gene for this disorder is an evolutionary defense against malaria.
sickle cell disease
Red bone marrow and the ____ are considered primary lymphatic organs and lymph nodes and the _____ are considered secondary lymphatic organs.
thymus, spleen
The largest artery in the systemic circuit is the ____.
aorta
The major function(s) of the blood include(s):
- transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients
- carrying waste products
- regulating body temperatures and pH
- fighting pathogens
The two major components of blood are:
formed elements and plasma
The function of valves in veins is:
to prevent that the backward flow of blood
Mature human red blood cells:
are biconcave discs without a nucleus
_____ is known as programmed cell death.
apoptosis
Cardiac blood flow:
the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein.
As a result of having cystic fibrosis, Shaun was in need of a lung transplant. Not only did he have to go through a series of biological and psychological tests, physicians had to complete studies of his and his donors ____.
MHC
The lymphatic system:
- takes up excess tissue fluid, returns it to the bloodstream
- absorbs fats in the intestines
- helps the body defend against disease
- includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils
Order of antigen binding and plasma cell formation:
(1) antigen binds to BCR
(2) B cell activated
(3) B cell divides
(4) plasma cells form
Viruses:
- contain a protein coat called a capsid
- may contrain genomic DNA or RNA
- are acellular
- are obligate intracellular parasites
Lymphatic capillaries called ____ are located in the small intestines.
lacteals
Monoclonal antibodies:
are produced by hybridomas
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