_____ exercise occurs when you can manage to get a steady supply of oxygen to the muscle cells.
In an isotonic solution, the number of particles of particles is ______.
The tentative explanation to be tested is called:
The enzyme pancrease is given to patients that have difficulties producing pancreatic enzymes in order to aid digestion. Pancrease like all enzymes serve as biological catalysts aiding _____.
in speeding up metabolic reactions
The biologically important properties of water are due to these attributes of water:
- polarity - hydrogen bonding - liquid at room temperature - high heat of vaporization
- oligodendrocytes - microglia cells - astrocytes
The information collected during the experiment or observation is called:
_____ involves uncontrollable cell division.
The ____ is a structure found in eukaryotic cells that houses the genetic material.
In water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and:
an oxygen atom in a different molecule
The ____ is a stack of slightly curved saccules that are important in packaging and secretion.
In cytology homeostasis refers to:
the maintainance of an internal environment of a cell that varies only within certain limits
_____ receives sensory input, integrates data, and conducts impulses.
Nails, hair, and glands are:
structures of epidermal origin
Joining small molecules (monomers) together to form longer chains (polymers) requires a process called _____.
_____ allows rapid change in one direction and does not achieve stability.
Lysosomes function in ________.
Human beings are part of the biosphere.
Human beings are included in one of the four eukaryotic kingdoms.
Human beings are classified as animals, vertebrates, and mammals.
Of any living animal, human beings are most closely related to apes.
_____ glands are considered ductless glands, and ______ glands are considered duct glands.
The smallest unit of an element that still remains the chemical and physical properties of that element is called:
The formation of _____ bonds involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another nearby atom.
Two or more atoms that combine are defined as _____.
A function of the integument involves:
- protection from pathogens - inhibition of water loss - regulation of body temperature - synthesis of vitamin D
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to:
Order of increasing complexity/organization:
- cells - tissues - organs - organ systems - organism
An obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA is called the _____.
_______ form the myelin sheath around nerve fibers outside the brain and spinal cord.
A group that goes through all of the steps of an experiment but does not contain the variable being tested is called:
the control group
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as _____.
Proteins are comprised of:
The network or sphere of life on the planet is called the:
Statistical studies are critical:
- to find important correlations - in evaluating numerical data from various sources - because humans cannot participate in many experiments - but also have limitations
The active site of an enzyme:
- is the part of an enzyme where the substrate fits - can be used over and over again
The function of the plasma membrane is:
- to determine which substances enter and leave the cells - serves as a boundary between the cells and its environment - contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts its environment
One of the dangers of smoking is that it disrupts the mucosoidal escalator system in the trachea. This defensive system utilizes ciliary action of specialized epithelia known as _____ and mucus to prevent potentially harmful substances from entering the lungs.
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called:
A concept based on conclusions of observations and experimentation that joins together well-supported and related hypotheses is called:
a scientific theory
Tight junctions are associated with ____.
The following system helps maintain homeostasis:
This process requires oxygen:
electron transport chain
Glycolysis occurs within the _____ and the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain occur within the _____.
The type of tissue that covers body surfaces and lines body cavities is:
The folds in mitochondrial membranes are called:
When you put your hand on a hot stove, ____ receive signals from the sensory receptors or other neurons and _____ conduct nerve impulses.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of ____ and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is important in synthesizing _____.
The dermatologist explained to Chris that blackheads actually involved the ____ glands.
Specialized cells that work together to perform a common function are called:
The sums of all of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell collectively are called:
_____ is the storage from of glucose found in plants; _____ is the storage form of glucose in animals.
The three major components of connective tissue are _____.
- cells - ground substance - protein fibers
Basic tissue types:
- epithelial - connective - muscle - nervous
Phospholipids have ___ fatty acids.
The formed elements of the blood include:
- erythrocytes - platelets - leukocytes
______ can be found at the ends of the long bones, ribs, and respiratory passages.
All of the changes that occur from the time an egg is fertilized through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood is called:
When you eat a large meal, ____ processes convert the food into nutrients and energy.
Glucose breakdown leads to ______.
Sheree observed an amoeba feeding by engulfing the prey with its false feet or pseudopods. This process is nkown as:
____ connective tissue is partially responsible for the expandability of the lungs.
loose fibrous (areolar)
Atoms that share electrons have ____ bonds.
The building block molecules of polysaccharides are:
In an acidic solution:
the number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-
In epithelial tissues, the _____ serves to anchor the epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue.
ATP carries energy in the form of:
high-energy phosphate bonds
In organisms, ____ are responsible for directing development so that an offspring resembles its parents.
_____ are basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means.
The semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that dissolves molecules between the nucleus and cell membrane is called:
The internal structures of a cell that maintain its shape and allow it to move are called:
_____ are the fundamental units that make up all living things.
The endeavor that, by using observable and objective means, strives to help human beings understand the natural world is referred to as:
____ is responsible for the waterproofing of skin.
The scientific study of life is called:
The nitrogenous base NOT found in DNA:
The vertebral column in order from the neck down include the:
cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, and coccyx
Theh higher the concentrations of salts in the blood, the ____ the blood volume and the ____ the blood pressure.
The layers of the epiphyseal plate include:
-resting zone - proliferating zone - degenerating zone - ossification zone
The ____ is very important in the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
- nephron loop
The sternum is comprised of the:
manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
The process of urination is also called:
_____ is another term for breathing.
The _____ are a double-layered membrane that encloses each lung.
A muscle that moves the arms forward and across the chest is:
sheets of connective tissue
associated with the epiphyseal plate in long bones, such as the femur
results in the trabeculae of spongy bone
The contractile unit of a muscle fiber is called a:
The function(s) of an osteoclast is(are) _____.
- breakdown of bone - deposition of calcium in blood
The slit that lies between the vocal cords is known as the ___.
Cardiac muscle is:
found in the heart
Smooth muscle is:
NOT found in the muscles of the arm
Skeletal muscle can:
be found in the arms and legs
lines blood vessels
The respiratory gases diffuse through ____.
Rotation moves a part:
around its own axis
____ is the primary nitrogenous end product of humans.
____ is a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction.
The windpipe is more accurately called the ____.
The alveoli of human lungs are lined with a surfactant. This surfactant:
is a film of lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension, thus preventing closure
The scapula is part of the ____ skeleton, while the sternum is part of the _____ skeleton.
Jen's grandmother suffered from a loss in bone mass and bone weakness. Unfortunately she broke her hip as the result of these symptoms. She was suffering from _____.
A muscle which opposes the action of another muscle is called the:
The CSI agent determined the age of the victim based upon:
- the amount of yellow, brittle, and missing cartilage - the conditions of the joints - the dentition - the ossification of the skull bones
The urinary system is important in the regulation of ____.
- water content of the body - blood volume of the body - pH of the blood
The _____ is a cuplike structure that is part of the closed end of a nephron.
The muscle that raises the scapula (like shrugging the shoulders) and pulls the head backwards.
During muscle contraction:
ADP and P release causes the head to change position and actin filaments move
Dangers of smoking cigarettes:
- children of parents that smoke have a greater chance of developing asthma - cigarette smokers have an increased chance of developing lung cancer - chewing tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking - cigarette smoking can destroy cilia that serve to filtar the air
The process of breathing in is called _____, and the process of breathing out is called ____.
Manny choked because a morsel of food slipped by his ____ that normally guards the superior opening of the larynx.
The axial skeleton includes the:
- facial bones - coccyx - rib cage - sternum
Three steps/processes involved in urine formation?
The ____ is a dense white covering on the outside of bone.
Scott does not understand why alcohol consumption increases urine production. How is this simply explained?
alcohol inhibits ADH causing diuresis
Because the response of a muscle cell to a stimulus is complete, not partial, it is described as:
the all-or-none theory
If the blood becomes too alkaline, then:
fewer hydrogen ions are excreted, and fewer sodium and bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed
A muscle which does most of the work during a specific action is called the:
The spinal cord passes through the ____.
A single muscle contraction that lasts only a fraction of a second is called a:
The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the:
Upon examining some old deer and bison bones, it was discovered that they were broken in half to expose the medullary cavity that at one time had been filled with yellow bone marrow. The bones were broken to provide ____ in the diet of the user.
The continual release of renin by the juxtaglomerular apparatus leads to:
the development of hypertension
Excretion primarily rids the body of:
substances that were involved in metabolism
Most of the carbon dioxide carried in the plasma is found in ____.
The end of the muscle that is attached to the stationary bone is called the ____.
The muscle that extends the thigh back is called the:
The function of the urethra is to connect the urinary bladder to the:
exterior of the body
____ are thin plates or struts typically associated with spongy bone.
The first cervical vertebrae is called the ____, and the second cervical vertebrae is called the _____.
The site of gas exchange in the lungs is called _____.
The outer layer of the kidney is called the ____, and the inner layer of the kidney is called the ____.
renal cortex, renal medulla
The process of filtering or removing duct and other particles in the upper respiratory tract is accomplished by:
- mucous - nasal hairs - cilia
The expanded region near the end of a long bone is called the ____.
Proper functioning of a neuromuscular junction requires the:
- presence of acetylcholine - presence of synaptic cleft - presence of a motor terminal - sarcolemma of a muscle cell
Heather had urea and other metabolic waste products in her blood and was diagnosed with ____.
In humans, the lungs inflate because of:
contraction of the diaphragm and rib muscles
____ connect bone to muscle and ____ connect bone to bone.
Sequence of blood vessels about the kidney tubule:
After testing and displaying symptoms of chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain, Jim was diagnosed with ____.
inflammatory bowel syndrome
Agglutination refers to the process of:
clumping of red blood cells
The blood vessels that are the only ones small, thin, and porous enough to exchange substances at the tissue level of organization:
The enzyme that initiates the process of starch digestion is:
Lymphocytes travel to the ____ to become mature T lymphocytes:
Mr. Everett suffered from a thrombus. If the thrombus dislodges and enters the bloodstream, it becomes a/an _____.
The final reaction in blood clotting is:
fibrinogen to fibrin
____ are proteins produced by cells that are infected by a virus that serves to warn local non-infected cells.
In ____ immunity, the individual produces antibodies against particular pathogens, and in ____ immunity the individual is given specific antibodies against a pathogen.
The ____ system drains blood from the capillary beds of the digestive tract to a capillary bed in the liver.
The primary function of the stomach is:
to store food, churn, begin digestion
The most abundant type of white blood cells that are also the first to respond to an infection are _____. These leukocytes are also polymorphonucleated.
The role of HCL in the stomach is:
to increase the effectiveness of pepsin
Positive contributions of some bacteria:
- can serve as decomposers in the environment - important in the wine, cheese, and bread industries - important in biotechnology - beneficial residents of the digestive tract
The upper chambers of the heart are known as the:
____ is an enzyme secreted by the pancreas that works in the small intestines in order to begin the digestion of proteins.
A stent is:
a cylinder of expandable metal mesh that is positioned inside a coronary artery
The major function of the colon is:
to form feces
The rhythmic contractions of the digestive tract that allow movement of foodstuffs are called:
____ give rise to the components of the blood.
multipotent stem cells
Blood pressure ____ with distance from the left ventricle.
In the hereditary disorder, _____, red blood cells are misshapen and have difficulty negotiating capillaries. The gene for this disorder is an evolutionary defense against malaria.
sickle cell disease
Red bone marrow and the ____ are considered primary lymphatic organs and lymph nodes and the _____ are considered secondary lymphatic organs.
The largest artery in the systemic circuit is the ____.
The major function(s) of the blood include(s):
- transporting oxygen, hormones, and nutrients - carrying waste products - regulating body temperatures and pH - fighting pathogens
The two major components of blood are:
formed elements and plasma
The function of valves in veins is:
to prevent that the backward flow of blood
Mature human red blood cells:
are biconcave discs without a nucleus
_____ is known as programmed cell death.
Cardiac blood flow:
the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein.
As a result of having cystic fibrosis, Shaun was in need of a lung transplant. Not only did he have to go through a series of biological and psychological tests, physicians had to complete studies of his and his donors ____.
The lymphatic system:
- takes up excess tissue fluid, returns it to the bloodstream - absorbs fats in the intestines - helps the body defend against disease - includes the spleen, thymus, and tonsils
Order of antigen binding and plasma cell formation:
(1) antigen binds to BCR (2) B cell activated (3) B cell divides (4) plasma cells form
- contain a protein coat called a capsid - may contrain genomic DNA or RNA - are acellular - are obligate intracellular parasites
Lymphatic capillaries called ____ are located in the small intestines.