Is a set of gray matter areas forming the central core of the forebrain and sorrounded by the cerebral hemispheres, that collectively enclose the 3rd ventricle, and consists of thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
Thalamus: plays a role in meditating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory.
Hypothalamus: control center of the body, regulating ANS activity such as emotional response, body temp, food intake, sleep-wake cycles, and endocrine function.
Epithalamous: includes the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, and regulates sleep-wake cycle.
Functional brain systems consist of neurons that are distributed throughout the brain but work together
The limbic system: is involved with emotions, and is extensively connected throughout the brain, allowing it to integrate and respond to a wide variety of environmental stimuli. It's located on medial aspect of each cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon. Encircles upper part of brainstem and includes parts of rhinencephalon (septal nuclei, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, dentate gyrus, and C-shapped hippocampus).
Cingulate gyrus: expressing emotions through gestures.
The reticular formation: extends through the brain stem, keeping the cortex alert via the reticular activating system, and dampening familiar, repetitive, or weak sensory inputs.