Upgrade to remove ads
1st Semester Exam Review by Andrew and Dallas
This is the 1st Semester Exam Review in electronic form, or quizlet form, or notecard form. This is every question and answer.
Terms in this set (51)
Reasons Europeans explored the New World
Find new route to Asia, conquer new lands, expand trade/empire, wealth, fame, and religion.
Significance of the year 1492
Christopher Columbus discovered the New World.
Year founded, reasons founded, type of government, problems encountered of Roanoke, Jamestown, and Plymouth
Roanoke- 1585 and 1587, North Carolina, profit and/or fame, failed.
Jamestown- 1607, Virginia, profit(gold), House of Burgesses, weather/ Native Americans/ land.
Plymouth- 1620, Massachusetts, religious freedom, Mayflower Compact, disease/malnutrition.
Religious beliefs and reasons why Puritans, Pilgrims, and Quakers left their homeland for the New World
Puritans- Wanted to purify the Church of England
Pilgrims- Wanted to seperate from the Church of England(Seperatists)
Quakers- Wanted to take rituals out of the Church
Virginia House of Burgesses
1st representative assembly
Significance of Mayflower Compact and Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Mayflower Compact- 1st example of self- government in America
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- 1st constitution in America
Definition of Constitutional government, Representative Government, and Religious Toleration
Constitutional Government- government in which people follow guidelines set in a constitution.
Representative Government- people choose represestatives to make government.
Religious Toleration- allows people to practice religion without being persecuted.
Geography and Economy of New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies
New England Colonies- Shipping, fishing, trade, and rocky soil
Middle Colonies- farming, good, rich soil
Southern Colonies- Plantations, farming, slavery, good and swampy soil.
Middle Colonies(Breadbasket Colonies)
They produced most of the grain/bread products for trade.
Colonies the following people founded
John Smith- Virginia
William Bradford- Massachusetts
William Penn- Pennsylvania
John Winthrop- Massachusetts
Roger Williams- Rhode Island
Thomas Hooker- Connecticut
James Oglethorpe- Georgia
Triangular Trade(three land regions involved, and what was traded along each route)
North to West Indies- Molasses and exports
West Indies to Africa- slaves, molasses, and goods
Africa to North- rum, guns, and other supplies
Theory of Mercantilisim and why some colonists would be opposed to this
A nation becomes powerful building its gold supply and expanding trade. Maybe colonists would want a nation to be powerful by having a strong government and/or army instead.
A renewed interest in religion.
Description of plantation system, the colonial region it was found in, and why slavery was an important part of this system
Large farms in the South relied on slave labor. This was found in the Southern region. Slavery was needed for vast amounts of work.
People who would have their passage to the New World paid for and then they would be servants to pay off travel costs.
Colonies that were founded for economic and/or religious reasons
Economic reasons- Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina
Religious reasons- Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Georgia
Causes and results of the French and Indian War
Cause- Colonists were moving onto the Native American land
Effect- Fighting over the rich, fertile soil in the Ohio River Valley
Meaning of No taxation without representation
Do not tax without consulting first.
General causes of the American Revolution
British taxation, policies, acts, and rules that the colonists thought were unfair.
Significance of the following events that led to the American Revolution
Proclamation of 1763- Colonists could not move west past the Appalachian Mountains(being told where they could not go)
Stamp Act- Colonists forced to pay a tax on printed materials(were not consulted - led colonists to begin protesting)
Boston Massacre- Colonists were attacked and killed by British soldiers(angered colonists)
Boston Tea Party- Colonists were taxed on tea(colonists protested by dumping British tea)
Intolerable Acts- Rules that punished colonists for the Tea Party(colonists reacted by forming congress and making plans for war)
1st Contineantal Congress- Colonists send representatives to meet to prepare to act against the British.
Thomas Paine and his ideas expressed in the pamphlet Common Sense
Writer that wrote Common Sense to connive many colonists of the need to break free from British rule.
Significance of July 4, 1776
Colonists declared independence by signing the Declaration of Independence.
Main parts of the Declaration of Independence
1. Rights of citizens
2. Wrongs commited by the king
3. declared that the states were to be united and independent
Idea/purpose of the Declaration of Independence
To declare the colonies independent.
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and/or rights no government can take away.
Strenghts and weaknesses of the American Army
Strengths- determination, leadership, reason for fighting, and were fighting on their own land.
Weaknesses- untrained, undisciplined, low on supplies.
Strengths and weaknesses of the British Army
Strengths- professional soldiers, more men and supplies, powerful navy
Weaknesses- poor leadership, on enemy territory, long supply lines.
Date, victor, significance of Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill, Trenton/Princeton, Saratoga, and Yorktown
Lexington- start of the revolution, April 19, 1775, British went looking for weapons, Americans attacked, British won
Concord- start of war, April 19, 1775, British went looking for Adams and Hancock, Americans won
Bunker Hill- 1st major battle/proved war would be long June 17, 1775,British won
Trenton/Princeton- Washington and 2000 soldiers crossed Delaware River, surprise attacked the Hessians and victory December 26, 1776,Americans won
Saratoga- turning point of the war, brought French and Spanish to American side, October 17, 1777, Americans won
Yorktown- Final battle, American and French forces surrounded Cornwallis's(British)army
Conditions and results of Valley Forge
Lack of supplies, food, low morale, illness, training needed.
Significance of the Treaty of Alliance
French and Spanish allied with the Americans.
Results of the Treaty of Paris 1783
Great Britain recognized US as independent, agreed to give up land claims, US agreed to pay for damages.
Significance of the following individuals and their roles during the American Revolution
Thomas Jefferson- wrote Declaration of Independence
Benjamin Franklin- great thinker and leader, diplomat to France
George Washington- leader of the American(Contineantal) Army
Marquis de Lafayette- Frenchman who helped Washington and troops
General Cornwallis- led British and surrender of war
Paul Revere- led announcement that British were invading at Lexington and Concord
Samuel Adams- led revolution ideas, started protests and Sons of Liberty
Patrick Henry- great speaker of the day, said Give me liberty, or give me death
John Adams- led trial of Boston Massacre
King George III- King of England who was a tyrant to the colonists.
colonial fighters ready to fight on a minute's notice.
Strength and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Strengths- created new departments, signed peace treaties and created ways to bring in new territories
Weaknesses- states had too much power, no executive or judicial branches
Land Ordinance of 1785
Guidelines for admitting new states in the Union(Northwest Ordinance).
Significance of the Northwest Ordinance
Helped bring new states from territories.
Major ideas expressed in the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights
Magna Carta- limit the powers of the King
English Bill of Rights- example for individual rights(Bill of Rights)
Original purpose of the Constitutional Convention of 1787
To revise the Articles of Confederation, instead they decided to write a new constitution.
Conflict between large and small states over the idea of representation; description, result, and name of this compromise
Small states wanted representation to be based on equality since they had fewer people. Larger states wanted representation based on population since they had more people. They compromised with 2 houses: 1 based on equality, 1 based on population- Great Compromise.
Conflict between Northern and Southern states over the idea of slavery; description, result, and name of this compromise
Northern states did not want slaves to count when determining population for representation, but wanted slaves to count when determining taxation.
Southern states wanted slaves to count when determining population for representation, but shouldn't count when determining taxation.
3/5 Compromise- count 3/5 of slaves when counting for representation or taxation.
Role of George Washington during the Constitutional Convention
President of the convention.
Known as the Father of the Constitution.
Primary roles and 3 branches of government
Legislative- makes laws
Executive- carries out laws
Judicial- interprets the laws
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them; a nation in which people choose representatives, and the chosen representatives govern them.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments; sharing of powers between the state and national governments.
Seperation of Powers
dividing the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; each branch of government has seperate powers.
rule by the people; people have the ruling power.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power; each branch can inspect and limit every other branch to prevent abuse of power;Each branch has certain powers to balance out powers in another branch. This system is set up to ensure that not one branch gets too powerful.
Description of how the Constitution can be changed(amendment process)
Proposal for change must have 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress or national convention request of 2/3 legislature. 3/4 of all states must approve amendment.
Main Arguments made by Federalists regarding the Constitution
The national government should have power.
You might also like...
1st Semester Exam Review
Telescoping The Times
APUSH EOC REVIEW (pgs. 1-5)
Other sets by this creator
Expanding Nation Vocabulary 2013
Foraging A New Government Review Truitt 2012 OMS