chps 11 & 12 anatomy and physiology
Terms in this set (23)
functional groups of neurons that integrate incoming information received from receptors or different neuronal pools and then forwards the processed information to other destinations.
where the whole system works in a predictable all-or-nothing manner ex) spinal reflexes
inputs are segregated into many pathways and information delivered by each pathway is dealt with simultaneously by different parts of the neural circuitry is not repetitious
functional brain system involved in emotional response and memory formation
people under acute or unrelenting emotional stress fall prey to visceral illness, such as high blood pressure and heartburn.
reticular activating system
the sending of continuous stream of impulses to the cerebral cortex, and keeping the cortex alert and conscious and enhancing its excitability
recors some aspects to the continuous electrical activity of nervous in the brain and measures electrical potential differences between various cortical areas.
patterns of neuronal electrical activity recorded and are generated by synaptic activity at the surface of the cortex, rather than by action potentials in the white matter.
victims with this disease lose consciousness and fall stiffly to the ground, body wracked by uncontrollable jerking these seizures reflect a torrent of electrical discharges of groups of brain neurons, and while their uncontrolled activity is occurring , no other messages can get through.
pre seizure effects, these include sensory hallucinations , such as taste, smell, or flashes of light just before seizure begins
brief loss of consciousness, it indicates inadequate cerebral blood flow due to low blood pressure, as might follow hemorrhage or sudden emotional stress.
total unresponsiveness to sensory stimuli for an extended period in coma patients, oxygen use is always below normal resting levels
during sleep , the brain is active and oxygen consumption resembles that of the waking state. Is also defined as a state of partial unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused by stimulation
refers to the first 30 to 45 minutes of the sleep cycle , decreased metabolic activity, slow breathing and heart rate
stage in the normal sleep cycle during which dreams occur and the body undergoes marked changes including rapid eye movement.
patients with this condition lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state, these episodes last about 15 mins , can occur without warning anytime, and are often triggered by a pleasurable event.
chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed to function adequately during the day. Insomniacs tend to overestimate the extent of the sleeplessness it's common cause is psychological disturbance.
temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. the patients awakes abruptly due to lack of oxygen. the most common form, occurs when the loss of muscle tone during sleep allows excess fatty tissue or other structural abnormalities to block the upper airway. It is associated with obesity and made worse by alcohol and other depressants.
short term memory
the capacity is limited to seven or eight chunks of information
long term memory
is limitless capacity
entails learning explicit information, such as names, faces, words and dates. it is related to out conscious thought and out ability to manipulate symbols and language.
piano playing, kinds of memory are acquired through experience and usually repetition
bilateral destruction of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures which causes slight memory loss.