Chp 15 Anatomy and physiology
Terms in this set (39)
sensory receptor organs that houses gustatory cells which respond to dissolved food chemicals
the organ of smell is a yellow pigmented patch of pseudo stratified epithelium located in the rood of the nasal cavity
embedded in the tarsal plates and their ducts open at the eyelid edge just posterior to the eyelashes. they produce an oily secretion that lubricates the eyelid and the eye and prevents the eyelids from sticking together.
inflammation of any of the smaller glands
thin, protective mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior surface of the eye itself
lie in the orbit above the lateral end of the eye and is visible through the conjunctiva when the lid is everted. it continually release tear into the superior part of the conjunctival sac through several small excretory ducts.
enzyme is sweat, saliva, and tears that is capable of destroying certain kinds of bacteria
extrinsic eye muscles
the six skeletal muscles which attach to and move each eye
double vision , a person cannot properly focus the images of the asme area of the visual field from each eye and so sees two images instead of one
congenital weakness of the external eye muscles. the affected eye rotates medially or laterally. Is treated either with eye exercises to strengthen the weak muscles or by placing an eye patch.
transparent anterior portion of the eyeball;part of the fibrous layer forms a window that lets light enter eye.
the vascular middle layer of the eye. is blood vessel rich, which provide nutrition to all eye layers
thickened ring of tissue that encircles the lens, they control lens shape
the most anterior portion of the vascular layer . It lies between the cornea and the lens and is continuos with the ciliary body posteriorly.
the inner most layer of the eyeball, neural layer of the eyeball containing photoreceptors
where the optic nerve exits the eye is also called the blind spot because it lacks photoreceptors so light focused on it cannot be seen.
specialize receptor cells that respond to light energy; rods and cones
this allows light to pass almost directly to the photoreceptors rather through several retinal layers , greatly enhancing visual acuity.
pressure within the eye that may increase to dangerous levels and compress the retina and optic nerve. the eventual result causes blindness unless treated early
clouding of the lens that causes the world to appear distorted, some cataracts are congenital but most result from age related hardening and thickening of the lens or are secondary consequences of diabetes mellitus
biconvex, transparent , flexible structure that can change shape to allow precise focusing of light on the retina
distant objects are focused in front of the retina, rather than on it . myopia typically results form an eyeball that is too long.
(farsightedness) occurs when the parallel light rays from distant objects are focused behind the retina. hyperopia can see distant objects perfectly well because their ciliary muscles contract almost continuously to increase the light bending power of the lenses.
unequal curvatures indifferent parts of the cornea or lens lead to blurry images. procedures to correct this problem include specially cylindrically ground lenses, cornea implants and laser.
due to congenital lack of one or more of the cone types most common type is red, greed color blindness, resulting from a deficit or absolute absence of either red or green cones
conducting in which rod function is seriously hampered, impairing one's ability to drive safely at night.
shell-shaped projection surrounding the opening of the external acoustic meatus
yellow waxy earwax which provides a sticky trap for foreing bodies and repels insects
eardrum is thin, translucent, connective tissue membrane, covered by skin on its external face and by a mucosa internally. sound waves make them vibrate
runs obliquely downwards to link the middle ear cavity with the superior most part of the throat and the mucosa of the middle ear is continuos with the lining the throat.
middle eat inflammation is a common result of a sore throat
three tiny bones serving as transmitters of vibrations and locate within the middle ear; the malleus, incus and stapes.
suspended in its perilymph and united by a small duct
communicates with the utricle anteriorly which contain enlarged swellings at one end.
spira , conical bone chamber houses the receptor for hearing
occurs when something hampers sound conduction to the fluid of the internal ear. the most common cause of conduction deafness are middle ear inflammation.
resulting from damage to neural strictures at any point from the cochlear hair cells to and including the auditory cortical cells. this deafness typically results from the gradual loss of the hair cells throughout life.
ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli. it may result from inflammation of the middle or internal ears and is a side effect of some medications such as aspirin
sensory input mismatch , warning signals, which precede nausea and vomiting include excessive salivation rapid deep breathing . removal of the stimulus usually ends the symptoms.