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9th Grade Social Studies Midterm Study Guide

Social Studies
STUDY
PLAY
Ignatius of Loyola
leading Catholic reformer who does spiritual exercises like: meditation, prayer, and study
John Knox
he begins Calvinism to Scotland and his followers are Presbyterians
Thomas More
refuses to go against catholic church and is beheaded
Henry VIII
he need a male heir, but only has a daughter. He had six wives & three children. Which ending in religious turmoil & his death.
Gutenberg
he had the best invention of that time period; he improve the printing press
Calvin
formalized protest ideas, ideal government is theocracy- rule by religious leader
indulgences
a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin
printing press
it allows for quicker, cheap book production
Renaissance man
excels in many fields like the classical art, politics combat
Peace Augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that religious of each German state would be decided by its ruler
vernacular
the everyday language of people in a region or country
Renaissance
a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, & view of the world.
Reformation
a movement for religious reform
Shah Jahan
Jahangir's son and successor, marries Persian princess
Jahangir
Akbar's son allows wife Nar Jahan to control government
Safavids
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty from the 16th to 18th centuries
devshirme system
drafts boys from conquered lands
Taj Mahal
huge marble tomb Shah Jahan builds for his wife
Prince Henry
the son of Portugal's king, supports exploration
Vasco da Gamma
sails to India ands returns to Portugal with valuable cargo
Tokugawa leyasu
takes over completes unification of Japan
Zheng He
Chinese admiral who leads seven long voyages; distributes gifts to show China superiority
Hongwu
peasant's son who leads army that forces Mongols from China
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who wants to serve God and his king
caravel
it makes it possible to sail against the win
Treaty of Tordesillas
pope divide these lands between Spain and Portugal (Pope Alexander the 6th he divide them and is best known as the Line of Demarcation and it runs North to South. The land to the West is for Spain and the East Portugal.)
Korea
Manchus conquer, and its people graudully develop feelings of nationalism
haiku
three-line poetry that presents images
kabuki
theater-skits with elaborate costumes, music, and dance
daimyo
warrior-chieftains-are lords in new feudal system
spieces
European wanted it to put season in there food because there food was so bland
Cortez
Spanish adventurer-lands in Mexico
Pizarro
Spanish conquer leads force to Peru in 1532
Columbus
Genoese sea captain who reaches Americas
Vespucci
an Italain in the service of Portugal, also traveled along the eastern coast of South America
mercantilism
emphasizes wealth as source of power
Encomienda system
is capitalism which is based on private property profit
New Netherlands
Dutch claim to find land, which is now Albany and New York City
Peter the Great
becomes czar in 1696, begins to reforms Russia
Ivan the Terrible
become king of Russia
Maria Theresa
becomes empress of Austria faces years of war
Frederick II
become king of Prussia and religious tolerant is the law he relax on
restoration
return of monarchy under Charles II
Versailles Palace
is a center of arts during regin of Louis XIV the purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis
Edict of Nantes
a declaration of religious toleration
Glorious Revolution
bloodless overthrown of James in 1688
boyars
landowning nobles
War of Austrian
Frederick 2nd starts war to gain Silesia (iron ore, textiles, and food product). Maria Theresa resists Prussia power but loses Silesia in treaty. As result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe.
divine right
idea that monarchs represent God on earth
St. Petersburg
Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to west easier. He fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea. He begins building new capitol.
czar
seizes power and is get crowned
Thirty Year's War
conflict over religion, land, and power
Russian Economy
they had serf that were like slaves. When they sell their land the serf went with them.
Absolutism
when rulers are left with complete power
Frederick II
become king of Prussia and religious tolerant is the law he relax on
Copernicus
develops the heliocentric theory. They later prove him to be correct with mathematics
Bacon
urges scientists to experiment before drawing conclusion
Newton
develops theory of motion
Montesquieu
devoted himself to the study of political liberty
Locke
Philosopher who says government get power from the people
Diderot
created a large set of books to which many leadering scholar of Europe contributed articles and essay; they called it the Encyclopedia
Galileo
italian scientist; made key advances in astronomy
Declaration of Independence
document justifying colonial rebellion
Articles of Confederation
plan of government establishing the United States as a republic
Heliocentric
planet revolve around sun
Geocentric
moon, sun, plants revolve around earth
philosophers
French social critics in the mid- 1700s
Baroque style
grand, ornate design
neoclassical style
based on Greek/Roman themes
Treaty of Paris 1783
ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and United States
Scientific Revolution
new way of viewing natural world
Enlightenment
a moving stressing reason & thought