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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Civil War Overall Test Review
Terms in this set (40)
Who was Jefferson Davis?
President of the confederate states and the secretary of war, a Mexican war hero.
Who was Pickett?
A General who in the battle of Gettysburg, had ordered the confederates to charge up the mountain where the union was and ended up losing a lot of confederate soldiers
What was the union's, confederates, and England's view during the battle of Gettysburg about why thy were fighting?
Union- were fighting for other men's freedom (philosophical because a different type of war not fought for land)
Confederate- fighting for the question of the constitution of the rights states had
Englands- south was like England because they were like the old country fighting a defense battle while north was not like England because though differently
What were some advantages of the North (union)?
2) better prepared as in for more weapons, uniforms, ammo
3) larger railroad network for moving troops and materials
4) small but well organized navy which made South vulnerable to a naval blockade
5) an established government and outstanding leader, Lincoln
What were the advantages of the south (confederates)?
1) they were fighting for survival
2) strong military traditions
3) great leaders, Robert E. Lee
4) home-field advantage
5) had a number of strategic advantages=> defensive war
What was the confederates strategy?
Militarily: preserve small armies but diminish union's will to fight
Politically: win formal recognition from Britain and France because supplies from North was broken so trade with those two would be critical along with supplies
What plan does the union devise to use before the battles?
The anaconda plan, a two-part plan devised by General Winfield Scott to=
1: blockade south in part ports starving South's supplies
2: Drive southward along the Mississippi River to split confederacy into two, weakening it
What does Lincoln say about the slavery issue in the beginning before battles start?
That the only goal he has right now is to save the union and not free slaves-> border states who threatened to secede calm down a bit
Battle of Bull Run.
Who are the leaders for both sides, what happens, what is the difference in the naming of the battle from north to south?
- general scott sends general Irvin McDowell to battle confederate troops at a creek named Bull Run in Virginia
- at first union troops are winning
- confederate general Thomas j Jackson (stonewall Jackson) fights back with his troops and send north home to Washington
- Lincoln replaces McDowell with George McClellan
Describe Fort Henry and fort doneslon?
What did they lead to?
-McClellan starts to organize army of the Potomac
-Grant pursues Mississippi River (part of anaconda plan)
-Grant directly attacks FORT HENRY and FORT DONESLON driving confederate forces west
-after victory, grant goes to fight towards West in BATTLE OF SHILOH and barely wins
Battle of New Orleans?
- David Farragut sailed the union navy through Gulf of Mexico and seizes southern part of New Orleans (BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS)
March to Vicksburg?
-grant's land forces try to get to Vicksburg along with David Farragut who continues to sail north in hopes of capturing Vicksburg
- both end up never reaching the goal since confederates stopped them
After the union tries to advance into Vicksburg what does the confederacy try to do in the southwest?
-since the southwest was of strategic value to both sides due to rich gold mines, the confederacy march up to New Mexico and try to drive union forces out but lose because union destroys some of confederates' railroad trains
-confederates retreat to texas
After confederates loss of advance in Glorieta Pass in the Southwest, what do the union and confederacy start to fight over?
Loyalty of southwest's residents
- to get help from them (Union ends up getting help from Mexican American militia and cheyannes) ( confederates get help from creeks and chotaus)
Seize on Richmond?
- Lincoln urges McClellan to attack Richmond, Virginia by telling him to sail his army southward toward Chesapeake bay
-McClellan was cautious but followed orders
-union forces fail to take Richmond because General Robert E. lee stops them
- Lincoln replaces McClellan
Second battle of Bull run
- lee wins again
-Lincoln returns McClellan to command of union forces
What was the dilemma of slavery for union officers?
-No one knew what to do with them
-Some declared them contraband or set them to manual labor
-Fremont wanted to free the ones under his command but Lincoln declared it bad idea b/c could produce retaliation
During Lincoln's planning of the emancipation proclamation, how was the cabinet involved?
- Lincoln wanted to pass the emancipation proclamation
- Cabinet said because of the recent Battle of Bull Run 2 loss, they needed to wait or they would look desperate
Battle of Antietam?
-Lincoln needed a victory in order to be able to pass it
-After recent victory for confederates, lee decides to lead his troops into Maryland hoping to inspire them to ally with South (Saratoga effect) so he issues a "proclamation to the people of Maryland" (were known to agree with south) -> however, Maryland declines
-Union forces find out about plan so the two forces meet up and McClellan' troops attack near Antietam creek.
After victory at Antietam, Lincoln finally gets to do what?
Announce the military decree (aka emancipation proclamation )to force all enslaved people in states (did not apply to loyal border states or places under union military control)
How did people respond to emancipation proclamation?
Received criticism because the proclamation did not distinctly announce abolition of slavery and Lincoln had now basically changed his stance on the war being about keeping union together to being about slavery
Even though Lincoln received critics many for the emancipation proclamation, it was still a ...?
Turning point for war for northerners because the militia act is passed which allowed black soldiers to be accepted into union military
What group was formed after the emancipation proclamation?
54th Massachusetts regiment: an all African American group of volunteers
Blacks proved whites expectations wrong when they fought along with whites against the confederates
Battle of fort Wagner?
Battle of Fort Wagner where the 54th Massachusetts fought alongside whites and other blacks and lost. However, African Americans earned respect for courage.
Fort pillow surrender?
-African Americans still did menial tasks.
-African Americans weren't respected as soldiers in Fort Pillow surrender when confederates massacred them while African Americans tried to surrender
Siege of Vicksburg?
-Grant issues his forces to try and build canals for union ships to bypass Mississippi River and get into Vicksburg once more
-they fail to do so so grant devises a new plan
- grant marches troops southward to a southern point of Vicksburg drawing attention away from Vicksburg city
- his men sack the city and turn west toward Vicksburg again
- grant places Vick rug under a siege to cut off all supplies which ends up gaining them a victory
After the seize of Vicksburg what does Lincoln do ?
Fires McClellan for failing to pursue fleeing confederates and hires burnside
Battle of Fredericksburg?
After the seize of Vicksburg, Lee leads his troops against army of the Potomac and wins at the BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG
Battle of Chancellorsville?
-After the battle of Fredericksburg, Lincoln replaces burnside with General hooker
-Hooker decides to launch attack against Lee in the BATTLE OF CHANCELLORVILLE were the union loses again
Battle of Gettysburg ?
-union engages lee at Gettysburg with new leader, Meade
-confederates win 1st day but ended up pushing Union onto higher ground
-Meade uses advantage of high ground to defeat Lee because Lee failed to break union defense line
-many die and Lee rushes back to virginia
- delivers the Gettysburg address declaring that this is an important cause to fight to preserve the nation where all men can be equal
March towards Richmond?
-grant marches towards Richmond
-grant uses strategy of total war to inflict many losses onto the confederates by striking civilians as well
Shermans march to the sea?
-Sherman sets out for the Tennessee-Georgia border to capture port of savanna, Georgia
-Sherman orders troops to tear up everything and burn it all down
-Sherman ends up atentamente in on Atlanta so confederate troops abandon the city and Sherman occupies it and burns it all down
What happens after the march to the sea lead by Sherman victory?
Lincoln wins reelection by electoral vote
-grant places Petersburg under seize
-union suffers a bit more casualties but in the end, Lee is surrounded so he retreats
Second inaugural address?
- meets up with congress to discuss potential end to war but since he passes the 13th amendment outlawing slavery, no one compromises
-Lincoln has the second inaugural address where he mentions that south will not be punished once added back into the union after the Civil War ends
Appomattox courthouse surrender?
-Lee decides to set men on march to Carolina to join with leftover confederate troops but due to exhaustion, they get trapped by union in Appomattox courthouse, virgins where Lee surrenders
After Lee's final surrender and civil war's end, what happens to Lincoln?
He is assasinated at a comedy show nearby Fords theater by Booth a confederate. Lincoln becomes symbol for freedom
What was the wars impact on north (3) and on south (1)?
-Produced the gilded age where superficial glitter covered up underpaying decay of union
-Land Grant College Act was passed to give money to universities
-Protective Tariff was passed to protect northern industry
-landscape, Richmond, Atlanta was in shambles and African Americans found a new sense of hope.
Recommended textbook explanations
Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Beginnings to 1877
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
United States History: Modern America (California)
Alan Taylor, Emma J. Lapsansky-Werner, Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts
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