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bio final exam 2 q's
Terms in this set (50)
a situation in which one gene masks the expression of another gene
In a simple Mendelian mono-hybrid cross, true-breeding tall plants are crossed with short plants, and the Fi plants, which are all tall, are allowed to self-pollinate. What fraction of the F2 generation are both tall and heterozygous'
______________ is when multiple genes influence a single trait, while _____________ is a single gene affecting multiple traits.
Polygenic inheritance, pleiotropy
It is predictable that half of the human babies born will be male and half will be female because
Of the segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis, and all eggs contain the X chromosome.
If Mendel had performed experiments on cattle rather than on peas, one reason the patterns of inheritance would not have been easily detectable, because cattle
have small numbers of offspring
If a double-stranded DNA molecule contains 30 percent Thymine, it must contain ______ percent Guanine.
The strands that make up DNA are antiparallel. This means that
The 5'-to-3' direction of one strand is counter to the S'-to-3 direction of the other strand.
Double-stranded DNA looks like a ladder that has been twisted into a helix, or spiral. The side supports of the ladder
Alternating sugars and phosphates.
The process of programmed cell death is called
In multicellular organisms, cells that undergo mitotic division but not meiotic division are called cells
Which statement about an Individual that is homozygous for an allele is FALSE?
Its parents were necessarily homozygous for that allele.
In mice, short hair is dominant to long hair. If a short-haired Individual Is crossed with a long-haired individual and both long- and short-haired offspring result, one can conclude that
The short-haired parent is heterozygous.
Separation of the alleles of a single gene Into different gametes is called
In a species of wild lupine flower, the smooth seed allele (S) is completely dominant over the wrinkled seed allele (s). If the alleles for height are incompletely dominant such that TT is tall, Tt Is Intermediate, and tt is short, what will result from crossing a smooth-seeded, short (SStt) plant with a wrinkled-seeded, tall (ssTT') plant?
All the progeny will be smooth-seeded and intermediate In height.
If an Infant born to a mother with blood type O Is also type O, possible genotypes for the father are
O, A,or B.
The linear strands of DNA in eukaryotes are efficiently packed within the nucleus of the cell. The packing of DNA strands are mediated by proteins called:
The members of a homologous pair of chromosomes
Are identical in size and appearance.
Bacteria typically have ___, whereas eukaryotes have _____.
one chromosome that is usually circular; many chromosomes that are linear
At what phase in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?
At what phase in the cell cycle does segregation of chromosomes occur?
The molecules that make up a chromosome are _______ and _______.
At the milestone that defines metaphase, the chromosomes
Line up at the equatorial plate.
In general, when cyclin binds to a particular Cdk,
Kinase activation occurs.
In an organism with a diploid number of 8, a gamete has _______ chromosomes, a liver cell has ____ chromosomes, and a sperm cell at meiotic anaphase I has ____chromosomes.
The characteristic of DNA that allows it to make an exact copy of itself is
Its complementary base pairing.
DNA polymerase lengthens a polynucleotide strand by
Adding lost DNA sequences to the 3' end.
Why Is RNA incorporated into the DNA molecule during DNA replication?
DNA polymerases can only add on to an existing strand.
If a baby has "his father's nose" it is because:
The baby has inherited many alleles from his father that work together to shape the baby's nose.
The structure of DNA explains which three major properties of genes?
They contain information, replicate exactly, and can change to produce a mutation.
A single hair is found at the scene of a crime. Which technology would you use first to determine if the hair could have come from a certain suspect?
Which of the following statements about human hemoglobin Is FALSE?
It is made up of a single polypeptide chain.
Transcription Is the process by which
An RNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA template.
Which of the following statements about the flow of genetic information is true?
Proteins encode Information that is used to produce other proteins of the same amino acid sequence.
Which of the following molecules transfers information from mRNA to protein?
During Initiation, the sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds most tightly Is the
The double-stranded sequence of DNA shown at right Is being transcribed by RNA polymerase, which is moving along the strand In the same direction as the arrow points. What is the sequence of the transcript?
Which of the following mutations is LEAST likely to cause a frame shift?
A mutation that removes 6 nucleotides from a sequence.
In what order does a charged tRNA molecule move between the three sites on the ribosome?
Which amino acid is coded for by the triplet nucleotide sequence 3'-GTA-5 on the template DNA strand?
Following is a list of five steps that occur during the initiation of translation. Which of the following would be considered the third step in this process?
Large ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA
A transcription factor is a ________ that binds to _______.
Develop and reproduce only within the cells of hosts.
The H1V virus that causes AIDS is a
If glucose and lactose are both abundant, would It be beneficial for E. coil cells to express the genes that metabolize lactose? Why or why not?
No, lactose Is broken down into glucose.
Suppose that there is a mutation in the lac operon that prevents the repressor from binding to the operator. In theabsence of lactose (or allolactose), the genes of the operon will be. In the presence of lactose (or allolactose), the genes will be.
In eukaryotes, a promoter is the region of
DNA that binds RNA polymerase.
The TATA box is a(n)
Sequence associated with the promoter region of many genes.
The presence of the Barr body is evidence for
X chromosome inactivation.
Nucleosomes disaggregate to allow transcription and then reaggregate
By acetylation and deacetylation.
Actin, a protein found in almost all eukaryotic cells, Is expressed in most cell types at a fairly constant level. Thus, the gene that codes for actin can be considered a (n) _______ gene.
This set is often in folders with...
Chapter 16: Regulation of Gene Expression
BIO141 EXAM 4 MC
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