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Chapter 18-20 Review
Terms in this set (40)
Mexican War result
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-(1848) Ended Mexican-American War; Mexico gave up all claims to land from Texas to California for $15 million resulting in the question of whether this land should be used for slavery or not.
WILMOT PROVISO -->DIVIDED THE COUNTRY IN THE CONTROVERSY OF SLAVERY.
-Democratic representative from Pennsylvania who introduced an amendment to a bill authorizing funding for the Mexican-American War that stated slavery should not exist in any territory acquired from Mexico (WILMOT PROVISO [which led to the extension of the Missouri Compromise]).
This stated that Mexican Cession lands must be closed to slavery. It brought out the northern and southern differences in Congress. The Wilmot Proviso opened up bigger doors of what to do with this newly gained land. The north and south had clashing ideas and this war gave America the land which would divide the nation with the issue of whether to allow slavery to expand or not.
John C. Calhoun
-strongly argued for state's rights
-argued that the federal government had no right to outlaw something (like slavery) in an American territory that was legal in a number of American states (initial response to Wilmot Proviso).
-"I trust we shall persist in our resistance until restoration of all our rights, or disunion, one or the other, in the consequence."
Free soilers were those in the Free-Soil Party (Liberty Party) who opposed slavery in the newly acquired western territories.
-nominated former president Van Buren, who only won 10% of the popular vote in the election of 1848.
"Free soil, free labor, and free men!"
-were NOT abolitionist...just wanted the opportunity for whites to have jobs in the west
-Mexican War hero who was sent to defend the territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers.
-won the election of 1848 under the Whig party because he did not make any comments about the future of slavery in the territories.
Democratic presidential candidate in 1848, original proponent of the idea of "popular sovereignty."
(beat by Zachary Taylor)
Gold in California
-brought a lot of people to California and the western territories ("diggers" and "forty-niners")
-President Zachary Taylor encouraged California and New Mexico to draft constitutions and apply for statehood.
-By the end of 1849, California adopted a constitution prohibiting slavery
conductor of underground railroad;
freed >300 slaves;
helped runaway slaves to Canada
Crisis of Mexican Cession
-Until California became a free state there was a balance of power in the Senate.
-15 free states
-15 slave states
-once California enters as a free states threats of secession happen in the South. ("fire-eaters"- radical southern secessionist)
-Kentucky, leader of the Whig party who spoke forcefully against many of Calhoun's arguments--> resulted in the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
-Northerners were happy that California was a free state, so the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories would decide if they wanted to have slavery
-Slave trading was eliminated in Washington, D.C.
-Southerners were happy because of the Fugitive Slave Act being toughened
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
The provision of the Compromise of 1850 that comforted southern slave-catchers and aroused the wrath of northern abolitionists
-people in the territories should decide whether or not to allow slavery
Seventh of March Speech
given by Daniel Webster;
stated territory gained from Mexico was not physically suitable for slavery, but encouraged compromise from north
support for the Compromise of 1850 earned him the hatred of abolitionists
Senator William Seward's (New York Senator) doctrine that slavery should be excluded from the territories as a contrary to a divine moral law standing above even the Constitution
Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce (Dem.) vs Winfield Scott (Whig);
major issue= compromise of 1850;
whigs divided, Pierce wins;
end of whig party- national and sectional party arise
made the Gadsden Purchase, which opened the Northwest for settlement, and passed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Stephen A. Douglas
senator of IL;
Supported: westward expansion, railroad ending in Chicago, and popular sovereignty;
proposed split of Kansas & Nebraska which created the REPUBLICAN PARTY
ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. It was proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs. It was passed, however, because President Pierce supported it. The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route.
CREATED THE REPUBLICAN PARTY
-sectional to the north
-all slavery should be prohibited in all territories
-replaced the Know-Nothing Party
Uncle Tom's Cabin
-written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
-written as a response to the Fugitive Slave Act
-demonstrated the immorality of slavery
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas Territory where new proslavery and antislavery constitutions competed.The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
-basically all you need to know is that there were a butt ton of people from both sides that were sent to Kansas because of popular sovereignty to out number the vote for that territory
Extreme Abolitionist: John Brown
-tried to start a slave rebellion
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union.
written by proslavery supporters.
The document permitted slavery, excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote.
It was rejected.
Presidential Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty->15th president, failure to keep the Union intact led to the Civil War
Scott was a black slave who had lived with his master for five years in Illinois and Wisconsin territory. He sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence in free territory. The Dred Scott court decision was handed down by the Supreme Court on March 6,1857. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was a black slave and not a citizen. Hence, he could not sue in a federal court.
Dred Scott decision
1857; a slave who sued the U.S. for his freedom after living in free territories. Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Panic of 1857
The California gold rush increased inflation
-speculation in land and railroads "ripped economic fabric"; hit the North harder than South because the South had cotton as a staple source of income
-the North wanted free land from the government; drove Southerners closer to a showdown
-caused an increase in tariffs
-gave Republicans an issue for the election of 1860.
-the issues of slavery and the territories dominated the debates
-Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas to a series of 7 debates. Though Douglas won the senate seat, these debates gave Lincoln fame and helped him to later on win the presidency. These debates were a foreshadowing of the Civil War.
Occurred in October of 1859. John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves. He wanted to ride down the river and provide the slaves with arms from the North, but he failed to get the slaves organized. Brown was captured. The effects of Harper's Ferry Raid were as such: the South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed their own country during the Civil War
-President: Jefferson Davis
In Lincoln's Inaugural Address, he pledges to NOT interfere with slavery, but to fight the South on the issue of slavery.
-Lincoln sends provisions to Fort Sumter (wasn't meant to be an aggressive move)
-->Confederacy attacks Fort Sumter in April 1861 and the CIVIL WAR BEGINS
-majority of manufacturing capacity
+Fighting defensive war
+Sense of purpose
-reason to fight: Southern Honor
+Veteran Military Officials (which doesn't last long)
-hoped would get recognition and financial assistance
Union and Confederate Soldiers
In July 1861, the two armies were nearly equal in strength with less than 200,000 soldiers on each side; however at the peak of troop strength in 1863, Union soldiers outnumbered Confederate soldiers by a ratio of 2 to 1.
Civil War hardships
required men to serve in the military
-"rich man's war, poor man's fight"
Civil War was called this because the rich could "buy" their way out of the draft
your constitutional right to be charged with a crime before being put in jail; Lincoln suspended this right to stop the riots in the North (also violated 1st amendment rights)
this was a hardship for the south because states refused to pay the taxes necessary to fund the war; one state even threatened to leave the Confederacy because of disagreements
Weaknesses from both sides
-lack of leadership
-lack of purpose
-had no navy
-no government structure
-no railroad system
Northern Economy after the war
-thrived after the war
-more prosperous than before (new factories)
Southern Economy after the war
-fought to the point of exhaustion
Women in the Civil War
-many women went into industrial employment for the first time
-Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (first woman graduate of medical school) helped organize the U.S. Sanitary Commission (Red Cross)
-Clara Barton helped expand and transform the nursing profession