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Coleman, Jessica Uttyler
Terms in this set (61)
What is cellular division?
Cellular division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells . Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle
What are the three types of cellular division?
Binary fission, Mitosis, Meiosis.
What is the function of cellular division?
Reproduction, Growth and Repair
What is the cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two. The eukaryotic process is composed of interphase and m phase.
What is a genome?
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism' s or virus's genes along with its non-coding nucleic acid sequences.
What does the term ploidy mean?
referring to the number of chromosomes, which can be haploid or diploid.
What is a somatic cell? What is the ploidy of this cell?
Any cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors. 2n
What are gametes? What is the ploidy of this cell?
the reproductive cells such as sperm or egg. the ploidy is (n)
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
What is interphase?
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During this phase cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. this phase often accounts for 90% of the cell cycle.
What is DNA replication? Where does it occur?
The process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also known as DNA synthesis. It occurs in the Cell nucleus.
What is the structure of DNA?
A nucleic acid molecule, Usually a double stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases (A) adenine, (C) cytosine, (G) guanine, and (T) thymine.
What is topoisomerase?
A protein that breaks, swivels and rejoins DNA stands. During DNA replication, it helps to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
What is helicase?
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at replication forks, separating the two strands and making making them available as temple strands.
What is single-stranded DNA-binding proteins?
A protein that binds to the unpaired DNA strands during DNA replication, stabilizing them and holding them apart while they serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.
What is an Okazaki fragment? How are they formed?
A short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication. Many such segments are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA.
What is DNA polymerase?
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA (for example at a replication fork) by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain.
the new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in the mandatory 5' →3'direction.
What are primers? Why are they important in DNA replication?
A short stretch of RNA with a free 3' end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand and elongated with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication. They the starting point needed to initiate DNA synthesis.
What is ligase?
an enzyme that connects the gaps between nucleotides after RNA primers are removed and filled with new DNA (fills gaps between Okazaki fragments)
Combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
A cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and associated protein molecules. ( in some contexts, such as a genome sequencing, the term refer to the DNA alone.) A eukaryotic cell typically has multiple linear_______, which are located in the nucleus. A prokaryotic cell often has single, circular _________, which is found in the nucleoid, a region that is not enclosed by another membrane.
In a duplicated chromosome, the region on each sister chromatid, where they are most closely attached to each other by proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences; this close attachment causes a constriction in the condensed chromosome.
A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule- organizing center and is important during cell division. It has two centrioles.
A structure in the centrosome of an animal composed of a cylinder of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. Makes up centrosome.
A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
3 layers, project from centrosome towards kinetochore. Proteins of the inner layer touch the centromeric DNA, outer layer touches kinetochore microtubules, and middle layer connects the two.
do not attach to kinetochores, extend from one pole to the other, they cause the cell to elongate to help separate the two sister chromatids
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis. Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Point where two chromatids are intertwined. Molecular markers (scars) that prove crossing over has occurred - hold together sister chromatids from mom and dad.
Pairing of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell, as occurs during prophase I of meiosis.
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis.
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II. Full sets of these are created during the S(DNA replication) subphase of interphase .
An imaginary plane during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles.
A double membrane across the mid-line of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
A method of asexual reproduction by division in half. In prokaryotes, it does not involve mitosis, but single celled eukaryotes that undergo this process, mitosis is part of the process.
Shallow groove in cell surface. At site of furrow, cytoplasm has ring of microfilaments made of actin assoc. with protein myosin (same as muscle contraction) When actin interacts with myosin, ring contracts and cleavage furrow deepens and pinches parent cell in two.
Cell plate Mitotic spindle
This is an array of spindle fibers, each containing ~20 microtubules. Microtubules are synthesized from tubulin monomers in the cytoplasm and grow out from each centrosome.
A small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays a key role in chromatin structure.
The basic bead-like unit of DNA packing in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of two copies of each four types of histone.
What is the difference between an animal cell and a plant cell going through mitosis?
One of the big differences is during the last phase of mitosis, telophase. Cytokinesis (dividing of cells) occurs differently in animal and plant cells. Animal cells undergo cell furrowing. Plant cells undergo cell plant formation. This difference is cause by the plant cell wall, with a rigid wall, the plant cell can not pinch in the middle like animal cells.
Another difference is that animal cells have centrioles, which work with pulling the chromosomes to opposite poles. Plant cells do not have centrioles.
What is anchorage dependence and Density-dependent inhibition?
most animal cells must be in contact with a solid surface in order to divide. If a cell is crowded it will not divide. Cells will stop dividing when they are in contact with others cells.
What is cancer? What is malignant vs. benign tumors?
cells that do not respond to the cell cycle control system
What is metastasis?
when cells break away from a tumor and start cancer in distant places.
How is the cell cycle regulated? For instance, discuss CdK and checkpoints in the cell cycle.
a family of closely related proteins, known as cyclins, are involved in cell cycle regulation. Cyclins regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
What are cell cycle checkpoints?
Biochemical reactions that control the progression through the cell cycle. They ensure everything in the cell is "okay". Tell the cell to stop, continue or repair.
What are some external controls that regulate the cell cycle? What are some internal controls that regulate the cell cycle?
A checkpoint is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cycle can be halted until conditions are favorable.
Damage to DNA and other external factors are evaluated at the G1 checkpoint; if conditions are inadequate, the cell will not be allowed to continue to the S phase of interphase.
The G2 checkpoint ensures all of the chromosomes have been replicated and that the replicated DNA is not damaged before cell enters mitosis.
The M checkpoint determines whether all the sister chromatids are correctly attached to the spindle microtubules before the cell enters the irreversible anaphase stage.
____________ is to somatic cell as haploid is to ___________.
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs.
Any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
What is a Karotype?
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. conserves chromosome number by allocating replicated chromosomes equally to each of the daughter nuclei.
a modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It usually results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes.
What are the sub-phases of interphase?
G1, S, G2
The period prior to synthesis of DNA, where the cell increases in mass in preparation for cell division.
The period during which DNA is synthesized.
The period after DNA synthesis has occurred but prior to prophase (preparing for mitosis). The cell synthesizes proteins and continues to increase in size.(centrosomes)
What does the term antiparallel mean?(DNA)
Referring to the arrangement of the sugar phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5'→3' directions).
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by the means of Okazaki Fragments, each synthesized in a 5' →3' direction away from the replication fork.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA ( or RNA, in some viruses).
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