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AP Computer Science Principles Vocabulary
Terms in this set (54)
a novel or improved idea, device, product, etc, or the development thereof
a way of representing information using only two options
a contraction of "binary digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1
the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time ex. 8bits/sec
a set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
language in which the content and basic formatting of a web page are written
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
ASCII-based protocol that is the foundation of communication on the web-designed to send and receive web page data over the internet
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
ASCII is the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand
to write code, or to write instructions for a computer
raging legal debate about the principle that internet service should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favoring or blocking particular products or websites
the attempt to control or suppress of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the internet by certain people. This can be used to protect people but can also be used to limit free speech.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards and protocols, in particular the standards that compromise the internet protocol suite (TCP/IP)
A group of computers and servers that are connected to each other
the principle that all internet traffic should be treated equally by internet providers
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the internet
small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from large chunks of information
contains 32 bits and there are more than 4 billion unique addresses
uses 120 bits per unique address and has 340 undecillion provided addresses
when information is split into areas that contain both a segment of data to be transferred to where the data is to be sent
What is a router?
A router is a device designed to receive and redirect packets of information based upon the addressing information contained in the packet. Directing messages towards the target computer based on the IP addresses included in the message
Communication lines can become backed up with traffic. The ability to choose whichever one currently has the least traffic improves the speed of transmission.
having many redundant paths means if one goes down there are many others that a message can take.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with Ip and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
Reasons for Packets:
limit data loss, improve speed, and efficient network usage
DNS (Domain Name System)
The service that translates URLs to IP addresses
An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like google.com)
8 bits in a byte. They are a fundamental unit with which we measure the "size" of data on computers.
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data
a problem solving approach to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
a type of data used for graphics or pictures
is data that describes other data.
pixel or "picture element"
fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image
the RGB color model uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light are added together in to reproduce a bride array of colors.
a data compression method that uses inexact approximations, discarding some data to represent the content. Most commonly seen in image formats like .jpg
Pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems
a computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurements Common aggregations include: Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median
in most spreadsheet software it is the name of the tool used to create summary tables
a table that shows the results of aggregations performed on data from a larger data set, hence a "summary" of larger data. Spreadsheet software typically calls them "pivot tables"
"low level" programming languages
a sparse, primitive set of commands to directly control the physical/electronic operations of a computing machine
a precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
High level programming language
a programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program. Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands.
selection or "branching"
the JUMP...IF command in the human machine language . gives us a way to compare two things (numbers) and take action if one thing was true
the JUMP command in the human machine language allows us to move to a different point in the program and start executing from there.
application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given
a piece of code that you can easily call over and over again
a collection of commands made available to a programmer
a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.
a collection of commands/functions, typically with a shared purpose
an extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need
a particular kind of looping construct provided in many languages
the action of doing something over and over again
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