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compounds in food that the body reques for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning

nutrient deficiencies

too little of one or more nutrients in the diet; a form of malnutrition


the results in the body of poor nutrition; undernutrition, overnutrition, or any other nutrition deficiency


Too little food energy or too few nutrients to prevent disease or to promote growth; a form of malnutrition


Too much food energy or excess nutrients to the degree of causing disease or increasing risk of disease; a form of malnutrition


Chemical compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugar is a carbohydrate. Carbohydrates store energy in their chemical bonds.


a class of nutrients that does not mix with water. Fat is made mostly up of fatty acids which provide energy to the body. Technically reffered to as LIPIDS.


a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. Protien is made up of amino acids. refered to only as the singular protien


Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.


a substance obtained by mining or digging in the earth


The capacity to do work or produce heat


The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate

fatty acids

simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body's cells

amino acids

Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy


A poison


units used to measure energy. calories indicate how much energy in a food can be used by the body or stored in body fat


The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose


A brain regulatory center

balanced meal

A meal with foods to provide the right amounts of carbohydrate, fat, and protein


the breaking down of food into nutrients the body can use. the digestive system is a series of body organs that break foods down and absorb their nutrients


a carbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings


indigestible substances in foods, made mostly of carbohydrate


carbohydrates found both in food and in the body


Hard, slow stools that are difficult to eliminate; often a result of too little fiber in the diet


Swollen, painful rectal veins; often a result of constipation


the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored

empty calories

A popular term referring to foods that contribute much energy but too little of the nutrients


concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources


Concerning fats and health, fats less associated with heart and artery disease


a type of unsaturated fat especially useful as a replacement for saturated fat in a heart-healthy diet


a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods


units of weight in which many nutrients are measured; 28 grams equals 1 ounce

essential amino acids

Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eatin in foods


people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.


a pill, powder, liquid, or the like containg only nutrients


Too little of a nutrient in the body

fat soluble

Dissolves in fat; stored in fatty tissues.

water soluble

able to dissolve in water

night blindness

Slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency


a chemical that can stop the destructive chain reactions of free radicals, among the nutrients, vitamins c and e, betacarotene, and the mineral selenium are examples

beta carotene

an orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients

free radicals

chemicals that harm the bodies tissues by starting destructive chain reactions in the molecules of the bodies cells, such reactions are believed to trigger or worsen some diseases


A disease of gradual bone loss, which can cripple people in later life


Reduced number or size of the red blood cells; a symptom of any of many different diseases, including some nutrient deficiencies

trace minerals

minerals essential in nutrition, needed in small quantities daily. iron and zinc are examples


minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body's fluid balance


a compound made up of minerals that, in water, dissolve and form electrolytes


high blood pressure


Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys


weight too low for health. underweight is often defined as weight 10 percent or more below the appropriate weight for height


overfatness to the point of injuring health. Obesity is often defined as 20 percent or more above the appropriate weight for height

chronic dieters

people who frequently diet in unhealthy ways in an attempt to lose weight

fatfold test

a test of body fatness done with a fatfold caliper

fatfold caliper

a pinching device that measures body fat under the skin

pinch test

an informal way of measuring body fatness

basal energy

the sum total of all the energy needed to support the chemical activities of the cells and to sustain life, exclusive of voluntary activities, the largest component of a person's daily energy expenditure

voluntary activities

movements of the body under the command of the conscious mind; one component of a person's daily energy expenditure


a drug that causes the body to lose fluids; not effective for loss of body fat

diet pills

medications that reduce the appetite or otherwise promote weight loss, pills available over the counter usually contain caffeine and other drugs that cause more nervousness than weight loss, prescription pils include amphetamines


the physiological need to eat, experienced as a drive for obtaining food, an unpleasant sensation that demands relief


the psychological desire to eat, a learned motivation and positive sensation that accompanies the sight, smell, or thought of food

stress eating

eating in response to stress, an inappropriate activity

behavior modification

changing one's choices or actions by manipulating the cues that trigger the actions, the actions themselves, or the consequences of the actions


times of falling back into former habits, a normal part of both weight change and weight maintenance

anorexia nervosa

a disorder of self starvation to the extreme


repeated binge eating, usually followed by vomiting

binge eating disorder

repeated binge eating, but not followed by vomiting

binge eating

overeating to an extreme degree


drugs that cause vomiting

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