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69 terms

Chapt. 7 & 8 Courtney Cook #1

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nutrients
compounds in food that the body reques for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
nutrient deficiencies
too little of one or more nutrients in the diet; a form of malnutrition
malnutrition
the results in the body of poor nutrition; undernutrition, overnutrition, or any other nutrition deficiency
undernutrition
Too little food energy or too few nutrients to prevent disease or to promote growth; a form of malnutrition
overnutrition
Too much food energy or excess nutrients to the degree of causing disease or increasing risk of disease; a form of malnutrition
carbohydrates
Chemical compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugar is a carbohydrate. Carbohydrates store energy in their chemical bonds.
fat
a class of nutrients that does not mix with water. Fat is made mostly up of fatty acids which provide energy to the body. Technically reffered to as LIPIDS.
protein
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. Protien is made up of amino acids. refered to only as the singular protien
vitamins
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
minerals
a substance obtained by mining or digging in the earth
energy
The capacity to do work or produce heat
glucose
The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate
fatty acids
simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body's cells
amino acids
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
toxin
A poison
calories
units used to measure energy. calories indicate how much energy in a food can be used by the body or stored in body fat
glycogen
The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
hypothalamus
A brain regulatory center
balanced meal
A meal with foods to provide the right amounts of carbohydrate, fat, and protein
digestion
the breaking down of food into nutrients the body can use. the digestive system is a series of body organs that break foods down and absorb their nutrients
starch
a carbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings
fiber
indigestible substances in foods, made mostly of carbohydrate
sugars
carbohydrates found both in food and in the body
constipation
Hard, slow stools that are difficult to eliminate; often a result of too little fiber in the diet
hemorrhoids
Swollen, painful rectal veins; often a result of constipation
rectum
the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored
empty calories
A popular term referring to foods that contribute much energy but too little of the nutrients
saturated
concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources
unsaturated
Concerning fats and health, fats less associated with heart and artery disease
polyunsaturated
a type of unsaturated fat especially useful as a replacement for saturated fat in a heart-healthy diet
cholesterol
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
grams
units of weight in which many nutrients are measured; 28 grams equals 1 ounce
essential amino acids
Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eatin in foods
vegetarians
people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.
supplements
a pill, powder, liquid, or the like containg only nutrients
deficiency
Too little of a nutrient in the body
fat soluble
Dissolves in fat; stored in fatty tissues.
water soluble
able to dissolve in water
night blindness
Slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency
antioxidant
a chemical that can stop the destructive chain reactions of free radicals, among the nutrients, vitamins c and e, betacarotene, and the mineral selenium are examples
beta carotene
an orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients
free radicals
chemicals that harm the bodies tissues by starting destructive chain reactions in the molecules of the bodies cells, such reactions are believed to trigger or worsen some diseases
osteoporosis
A disease of gradual bone loss, which can cripple people in later life
anemia
Reduced number or size of the red blood cells; a symptom of any of many different diseases, including some nutrient deficiencies
trace minerals
minerals essential in nutrition, needed in small quantities daily. iron and zinc are examples
electrolytes
minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body's fluid balance
salt
a compound made up of minerals that, in water, dissolve and form electrolytes
hypertension
high blood pressure
urine
Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys
underweight
weight too low for health. underweight is often defined as weight 10 percent or more below the appropriate weight for height
obesity
overfatness to the point of injuring health. Obesity is often defined as 20 percent or more above the appropriate weight for height
chronic dieters
people who frequently diet in unhealthy ways in an attempt to lose weight
fatfold test
a test of body fatness done with a fatfold caliper
fatfold caliper
a pinching device that measures body fat under the skin
pinch test
an informal way of measuring body fatness
basal energy
the sum total of all the energy needed to support the chemical activities of the cells and to sustain life, exclusive of voluntary activities, the largest component of a person's daily energy expenditure
voluntary activities
movements of the body under the command of the conscious mind; one component of a person's daily energy expenditure
diuretic
a drug that causes the body to lose fluids; not effective for loss of body fat
diet pills
medications that reduce the appetite or otherwise promote weight loss, pills available over the counter usually contain caffeine and other drugs that cause more nervousness than weight loss, prescription pils include amphetamines
hunger
the physiological need to eat, experienced as a drive for obtaining food, an unpleasant sensation that demands relief
appetite
the psychological desire to eat, a learned motivation and positive sensation that accompanies the sight, smell, or thought of food
stress eating
eating in response to stress, an inappropriate activity
behavior modification
changing one's choices or actions by manipulating the cues that trigger the actions, the actions themselves, or the consequences of the actions
lapses
times of falling back into former habits, a normal part of both weight change and weight maintenance
anorexia nervosa
a disorder of self starvation to the extreme
bulimia
repeated binge eating, usually followed by vomiting
binge eating disorder
repeated binge eating, but not followed by vomiting
binge eating
overeating to an extreme degree
emetics
drugs that cause vomiting