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132 terms

Origin of Modern Astronomy

Early Astronomy The Earth-Moon-Sun System Earth's Moon
STUDY
PLAY
astronomy
the scientific study of the universe; It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena
geocentric
describes the concept of an Earth-centered universe
heliocentric
describes the view that the sun is at the center of the solar system
retrograde motion
the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars
astronomical unit (AU)
average distance from he Earth to the sun; 1.5 × 10⁸, or million kilometers
ellipse
an oval
rotation
the spinning of a body, such as earth, about its axis
revolution
the motion of one bode about another, as Earth about the sun
precession
a slow motion of Earth's axis that traces out a cone over a period of 26,000 years
perihelion
the point in the orbit of a planet where it is closest to the sun
aphelion
the place in the orbit of a planet where the planet is farthest from the sun
perigee
the point at which the moon is closest to the Earth
apogee
the point where the moon is farthest from Earth
phases of the moon
the progression of changes in the moon's appearance during the month
solar eclipse
an eclipse of the sun; a solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the sun, casting a shadow on earth
lunar eclipse
an eclipse of the moon; occurs when the moon passes through Earth's shadow
crater
the depression at the summit of a volcano or that which is produced by a meteorite impact
ray
any of a system of bright elongated streaks sometimes associated with a craters on the moon
Asteroid
a small rocky body, which can range in size from a few hundred kilometers to less the one kilometer. They are mostly between Mars and Jupiter.
Comet
A small body made up of rocky and metallic pieces held together by froze glass. they normally revolve around the sun in an elongated orbit.
Coma
A fuzzy, gaseous component of a comets head
mare
Latin for the smooth areas of the moon formerly thought to be seas
rille
A long channel associated with a lunar maria. Looks similar to a valley or a trench.
ray
Any of a system of bright elongated streaks, sometimes associated with crater on the moon.
lunar regolith
A thin gray layer on the moon's surface, consisting of loosely compacted fragmented material believed to have been formed by many meteorites hitting it.
terrestrial planet
Any of the earth like planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
Jovian planet
Planets with low densities and are huge gas giants. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
nebula
A cloud of dust, gas or both in space.
planetesimals
A small, irregular shaped body formed by colliding matter.
Geocentric Model
the model where the planets, sun, and moon orbit Earth
Heliocentric Model
the model where Earth and other planets orbit the sun
Claudius Ptolemy
Early Greek man who created a Geocentric model
Ptolemaic System
the Geocentric model that Ptolemy created with was not doubted for 13 centuries
Nicolaus Copernicus
man: Earth is a plant
Nicolaus Copernicus
man: proposed Heliocentric model of the solar system
Tycho Brahe
man: measured location of heavenly bodies (planets)
Tycho Brahe
man: had made very precise measurements and observations about solar system than any others
Johannes Kepler
man: mathematician and assistant to Brahe
Johannes Kepler
man: discovered 3 laws of planetary motion ([last name of man] Laws)
Kepler law #1
all planets orbit sun in ellipse
Kepler law #2
when a planet is closer to the sun in its orbit, it moves faster
Kepler law #3
T²=D³ (the time of a planets orbital period ² is proportional to the average distance³
Galileo Galilei
greatest scientist of Italian Renaissance
Galileo Galilei
discovered 4 large satellites of Jupiter
Galileo Galilei
discovered planets Earth-like
Galileo Galilei
discovered Venus had phases like moon
Galileo Galilei
discovered Sun had dark regions (sunspots)
Sir Isaac Newton
formulated law of universal gravitation
Sir Isaac Newton
every body in universe attracts to other bodies with a force that is directly proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to the ² of the distance between centers of mass
Law of universal gravitation
F=G(m₁ *m₂/r₂)
ellipse
planets orbit the sun in an ______
faster
then a planet is closer to sun it moves _____
Galileo Galilei
discovered moon was not smooth
rotation
a spin of a body about its axis
revolution
a orbit of a body about an object
seasons
Earth's axis tilt causes
29 ½ days
time from new moon --> new moon
27 1/3
days it takes moons orbit around earth
synodic month
new moon --> new moon is called
sidereal month
earth, moon, and star are all aligned
phases of the moon
new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent
sun moon earth
order of objects during solar eclipse
sun earth moon
order of objects during lunar eclipse
umbra
shadow when a full solar eclipse occurs
penumbra
shadow when a full lunar eclipse occurs
true
(true or false) We only see one side of the moon.
Giant Impact Theory
a mars size meteoroid hit Earth and outside layer became moon (theory of how moon formed that is most accepted by people)
Mercury
called inner most planet
Mercury
some smooth terrain(resembling maria) - very dense (large iron core) - nighttime temp. = -173 degrees Celsius - noontime temp. = 427 degrees Celsius - greatest surface temperature extremes of any planet
meteoroid
small solid particle that travels through space
meteoroid
originates by interplanetary that was not gravitationally swept up by the planets during the formation of the solar system
meteoroid
forms when material from the asteroid belt
meteoroid
forms from the solid remains of comets that once traveled near earth's orbit
hailey's comet
most famous short period comet
meteor
meteoroids that vaporize before reaching earth's surface (phenomenon)
meteorite
a meteoroid that actually reaches earth's surface
Venus
similar to earth in size, density, mass, and location
Venus
has many greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, making it warmer than mercury
Venus
surface shaped by basaltic volcanism and tectonic activity
Venus
called the veiled planet
Mars
called the red planet
size
most obvious difference between the terrestrial and Jovian planets
density, chemical makeup, rate of rotation
3 other differences between terrestrial and Jovian planets
gas, rock, ice
3 substances that make up a planet
helium, hydrogen
some of the gases that make up a planet
silicate minerals, metallic iron
some rocks that make up a planet
ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, water
some ices that make up a planet
hydrogen, helium, methane, carbon dioxide
some thick gases that make up Jovian atmospheres
atmospheres
Jovian planets have greater ________________ than terrestrial planets
Nebular Theory
the solar system was created by a rotating disk of dust an gases
Mars
fourth planet from the Sun; has polar ice caps, a thin atmosphere, and a reddish appearance caused by iron oxide in weathered rocks and soil
Venus
planet close to Earth that is covered with clouds
Mars
4th planet from the Sun. Is sometimes called the Red Planet. It makes one complete orbit around the Sun every 686.98 days. Rotates on its axis about the same speed as the Earth. It completes one rotation in about 24 hours and 37 minutes. Has seasons similar to our planet, but they last much longer. Has a total of 2 satellites (or moons).Has thin atmosphere, very cold, with polar ice caps. Has the largest volcano in the solar system. Olympus Mons. No active inner core
Jupiter
Giant among planets
2.5
Jupiter is ____ times bigger than all other planets and moons combined
hydrogen, helium
Atmosphere of Jupiter
Jupiter
planet gives of twice as much heat as it receives
rocky and metallic
Jupiter's core
28
How many moon does Jupiter have that have been discovered?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
Jupiter's 4 main moons aka Galilean moons
Io
one of the three volcanic active moons (Jupiter)
Europa
smallest Galilean moon and has icy surface
Ganymede
largest Jovian moon
Callisto
outermost Galilean moon (crater density) like Earth's moon
fine dark particles
Jupiter's rings are made of
Saturn
Elegant planet
rings
most prominent about Saturn is its ____
Great Red Spot
cyclonic storm on Jupiter
Saturn
a windy planet (not Neptune)
Saturn
had small storms in atmosphere
31
How many moons does Saturn have?
Saturn
a planet with very complex rings
moonlets
small individual particles of ice and rock that float between Saturn's rings
A and B
the main rings of Saturn (thin, dense, bright)
E
outer most ring of Saturn (thicker, less dense)
Io, Earth, Triton
three volcanic active things
Titan
Saturn's largest moon
Titan and Triton
two moons that have substantial atmospheres
Phoebe
Saturn's moon that exhibits retrograde motion; it is likely that it planetesimals or meteoroid or asteroid that was picked up
Uranus
The sideways planet
Uranus
the planet who's orbit lies ⊥to axis of rotaion
Neptune
the windy planet
Neptune
planet with winds over 1000 km/h (the windiest planet of the solar system)
Neptune
planet who had a great Dark spot about he size of earth (a cyclonic storm)
Triton
second largest moon (size of earth)
Pluto
Planet X
Pluto
smallest planet who's orbit is erratic and sometimes falls between Neptune and Uranus
Pluto
considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun; has a solid icy-rock surface and a single moon, Charon
Kuiper Belt
a region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and that contains small bodies made mostly of ice
Kuiper Belt
where short orbital comets come from
Oort Cloud
(astronomy) a hypothetical huge collection of comets orbiting the sun far beyond the orbit of Pluto, A spherical region of comets that surrounds the solar system out to more than 1,000 times the distance from the sun
Oort Cloud
other solar system where long period comets come from