23 terms

IB: Psychology: CLOA Studies


Terms in this set (...)

Bartlett, 1932
A: See how memory of a story is affected by previous knowledge (i.e. schema)
P: Used serial production by telling British participants an unfamiliar story- War of Ghosts-
R: P's changed story as they tried to remember it: distortion (assimilation, leveling and sharpening), but participants did remember the overall theme
C: Remembering is an active process, where information is retrieved and changed to fit into existing schemas to create meaning in the information- supports the reconstructive theory of memory and schema theory
E: Lab study (eco. validity), non-rigorous methodology
Brewer and Treyens, 1981
A: To see whether a stereotypical schema of an office would affect memory (recall) of an office.
P: Participants were taken into a university student office and left for 35 seconds before being taken to another room.
They were asked to write down as much as they could remember from the office.
R: Participants recalled things of a "typical office" according to their schema.
They did not recall the wine and picnic basket that were in the office.
C: Participants' schema of an office influenced their memory of it.
They did not recall the wine and picnic basket because it is not part of their "typical office" schema.
E: Strict control over variables --> cause & effect
BUT Lacks ecological validity, Lab study, doesn't reflect daily activity
Baddeley and Hitch, 1974
Proposed the working model of memory with subsystems for memory processing and storage.
Working memory is short term memory and there are different systems for different types of information
CE: divides the system and deals with cognitive tasks, e.g. mental arithmetic
VS sketchpad: stores & processes info in a visual or spatial form
PL: deals with spoken & written material
Quinn and McConnel, 1996
A: To see if memorisation of words is affected by concurrent noise
P: List of words learned either by imagery or rehearsal with a concurrent noise (changing dot patterns or speech in a foreign language)
F: Learning by imagery not affected by concurrent verbal noise, but disturbed by visual noise and vice versa
C: Shows that visual and audial tasks are dealt with in different parts of the brain and that if two are performed simultaneously, it doesn't work
E: lab study, non-naturalistic
SO: lends support to the idea of limited processing capacity and WMM
Shiffrin and Atkinson, 1969
Multi-store model of memory: describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system:
information detected by sense organs, if attended it enters STM and transferred to LTM if rehearsed
Strengths: distinction between STM and LTM and gives evidence for primacy and recency effects, supported by HM
Weaknesses: oversimplified, STM & LTM don't operate in a unitary fashion, model neglects the processing elements of memory
Glanzer and Cunitz, 1966
A: tested the hypothesis that short term memory and long term memory are two separate stores in a free recall experiment
P: 240 army enlisted men presented with a list of 15 words to memorise, IFR condition and DFR with counting down activity
F: P's recalled primacy and recency of list better,- serial reproduction curve
C: primacy words stored differently to recency words, so separate memory stores
E: well controlled, all male participants of 1 profession, lacks ecological validity- not everyday memorization
SO: provides evidence for the MSM, both for IFR and DFR: primacy effect shows LTS and recency effect shows STS
Lupien et al. 2002
A: try to reverse memory loss with cortisol
P: two groups given drug to prevent cortisol production, completed memory test, given a drug to restore cortisol
Participants: elders in three groups: 1; with moderate level of cortisol, 2; with high levels, 3; placebo group
F: group with high level of cortisol originally showed no memory improvement after prevention of cortisol production, and had greater memory loss after levels were restored
C: People not at the too late stage could benefit from a reduction of cortisol, those with moderate levels shouldn't have levels reduced: essential hormone, excess of stress leads to more cortisol production, which is to blame for memory impairment, not stress itself
E: Confounding: different ages
Darley & Gross, 1983
A: To see if schema affect how we judge people
P: P's saw 2 videos of girls: Vid 1: girl playing in a poor environment, vid 2: girl playing in a rich environment, then saw girl perform in an intelligence test
F: P's said rich girl would do better than the poor girl in the intelligence test
C: P's used pre-stored schemas to interpret the ambiguous information: P's believed a high socioeconomic status = clever
E: lab study, subjective, only one video
Cole and Scribner, 1974
A: To investigate influences of education in the development of memory processes and strategies and free recall in children in two different cultures: USA & Kpelle
P: Free recall test and presented words to participants, asked to memorise all 20, 2nd part: researcher presented objects in a meaningful manner and P's asked to recall these
F: Liberian school children performed similarly to US children of same age- used similar memory techniques, but in 2nd part non-schooled children performed best by using a technique of grouping the objects according to roles they played in the story
C: People learn to remember things in ways that are relevant to their everyday lives: dependent on schooling.
E: Only 2 nationalities used, no clear C-E relationship- how much culture/school affects memory
SO: study supports that culture affects memory (a cognitive process)- influences schemas
Riniolo et al. 2003
A: Evaluate accuracy of archival eyewitness testimony from a traumatic real-life event (Titanic)
P: Independent review of the testimony of survivors who testified at hearings, 20 P's commented on titanic being intact or breaking apart, forensic evidence suggests it was breaking apart
F: 75% indicated that titanic was breaking apart
C: Central ideas formed during traumatic conditions are recalled fairly accurately- so indicate that memory of traumatic events is similar to memory for non-traumatic events
E: non-representative, bias towards "breaking," different vantage points, small sample, no variable manipulation or measure perceived trauma
SO: suggests that memories from a traumatic occasion are reliable.
Loftus & Palmer, 1974
A: Find out if questions asked subsequent to an event can cause a reconstruction in one's memory
P: 7 films showed, P's filled out questionnaire after each and gave an account of each. 1 Q. asked about the vehicle's speed using one of these words: hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted
F: smashed had an avg. speed estimate of 40.8 and contacted 31.8 (lowest)
C: Form of a question can markedly and systematically affect a witness' answer to the Q. - causes a change in the subject's memory representation of the accident
E: large sample size, BUT students used (non-representative), Lab, non-traumatic, non-generalisable, easy to replicate
SO: suggests memory from traumatic events is unreliable and can be altered by misleading info.
Speisman et al. 1964
A: To study the effects of appraisal on autonomic arousal
P: Showed P's film of aboriginal boys undergoing circumcision in a puberty rite, accompanied by 1 of 4 soundtracks: trauma, denial, intellectualisation, silent
Arousal state measured by a galvanic skin response and heart rate
F: trauma: highest arousal state, then denial, then intellectualisation
C: Cognitive and biological factors both essential to emotion: an interaction between these bring about emotion- supports the appraisal theory of emotion
E: It's possible that P's reactions were affected by the music, not that the music affected the appraisal of the situation, lack of eco. validity, lab study, but well controlled
SO: supports that cognitive factors DO interact in emotion to a great extent.
Schachter and Singer, 1962
Came up with TFT of emotion, suggesting that cognition and physiological arousal and emotional interpretation/labelling of arousal all interact
Strength of arousal determines intensity, interpretation determines which emotion is expressed
CRITICISM: only measured pulse of participants, low eco validity, didn't link specific types of cognitions to specific emotional states
Lazarus, 1975 and Smith and Lazarus, 1993
Lazarus, 1975 proposed a theory of emotion based on appraisal: we experience emotions when we appraise events as being beneficial or harmful to our well-being.
Primary appraisal: deciding whether situation is relevant
Secondary appraisal: provide information about the individual's coping options
Core relational theme: summary of all appraisal judgements that define specific emotions

Smith and Lazarus, 1993:
P: P's asked to identify with the central character of the stories they were reading- in one it is an unhelpful teacher or a character with bad working habits
C: manipulation of appraisal components led to P's reporting emotional states consistent with the appraisal theory
Ohman (2000)
A: To see if emotional appraisals can occur unconsciously
P: Presented pictures of spiders or snakes to P's who feared spiders, snakes or none of the 2, presented them long enough so P's were able to recognise them and presented them for 30 milliseconds followed by a neutral stimulus so the P's didn't become aware of it
R: Phobic participants showed nearly identical physiological responses (sweat gland activity) to pictures of their phobic animals, regardless of whether they'd consciously seen them
C: Appraisals can occur at unconscious levels
SO: Doesn't support TFT, non-conscious appraisal
Brown & Kulik
A: Investigate FMs and see if they're remembered more vividly/accurately than normal memories
P: questionnaires, 80 subjects- where they were at time of 10 shocking events- 1 personal event, asked how much they were rehearsed, covertly or overtly
F: vivid memories of shocking events recalled most accurately, especially JFK assassination and personal event
C: FM is caused by emotional arousal and maintained by rehearsal- differ from other memories by being more vivid, longer lasting and consistent
E: many P's from different nationalities, naturalistic, BUT very retrospective- hard to test accuracy of memories, low reliability, only certain events tested, possibly stress caused to P's
SO: supports the theory that FBM are more accurate than other memories
Aron and Dutton, 1974
A: Provide evidence for TFT of emotion
P: Male P's walked across 2 types of bridges: scary and stable, at end an attractive female met P's, 1/2 approached immediately, 1/2 after 5 mins- all given a thematic apperception test, girl gave numbers and asked to call if they had questions
F: men who walked over scary bridge and were interviewed immediately had a sexual manifest content and ask woman for a date, men who walked across safe bridge OR interviewed 5 mins later- less likely to call woman, had less sexual TAT result
C: Men felt arousal as they walked across scary bridge- misattributed arousal to woman, making her seem more attractive
E: TAT test very subjective, only males, lab conditions
Palva et al. 2010
Demonstrated using brain imaging techniques that for working memory different stimuli was processed in different places.
Baddeley, 1966
A: Investigate the type of encoding which is preferred by LTM and STM
P: 4 word lists: acoustically similar, semantically similar, acoustically dissimilar and semantically dissimilar
Either recall list immediately or after a delay
F: In STM the similar words were remembered the least well- confused the words, in LTM those with similar meanings were remembered least well
C: Encoding is mainly semantic in LTM, encoding is mostly acoustic in STM
E: low eco validity, acoustic and semantic encodings aren't the only ones used, only 4 word lists
Neisser & Harsch, 1992
A: test FM for accuracy
P: 106 psychology students asked to write about how they heard news of "Challenger spacecraft disaster," asked specific questions about it: done 24 hours after and 2.5 yrs later again by 44 of them
F: 1 day after, 215 said they saw it on TV, 2.5 yrs later, 45% said they saw it on TV
C: memories deteriorated over time, suggests FBM aren't reliable, say that FBM may just be ordinary memories
E: may not have been a significant event, only psych students, but naturalistic, lots of uncontrollable variables
Le Doux
A: To find out where the brain stores emotional memory- investigate the brain's emotional circuit
P: Lesions made in rats in specific neural pathways to determine the functions of the damaged pathways, made where brain processes sound (auditory context) and then in the auditory thalamus, which provides input to the context
F: Thalamus and amygdala play different roles in generation of emotions, pathways with lesions that led to the amygdala or thalamus affected emotional responses.
C: Biological factor of brain damage to either of these regions would result in issues in generating emotions
E: Unethical, rats used
SO: study supports that factors interact in emotion to a great extent
HM (Milner, 1966) and Clive Wearing
-Surgery on HM affected his hippocampus, couldn't transfer new information from STS to LTS
-Wearing, a London musician, suffered from a viral infection that damaged his hippocampus, had similar problems to HM
SO: if STS and LTS are distinct memory stores, then damage to one should leave the other intact (Baddeley, 2009)
Huettel et al. 2006
A: To explore the differences between decisions involving risks and decisions involving ambiguity.
P: P's presented with monetary gambles that included both risky and ambiguous decisions, made P's choose
F: Ambiguity associated with increased activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex and risk associated with posterior parietal cortex AND impulsiveness associated with prefrontal cortex activity- used fMRI
C: different parts of brain are more active for different types of decisions
SO: fMRI can be used to decide if decision-making in risky settings is different from decision-making in ambiguous settings, or if they are simply different examples of the same process