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Terms in this set (212)
What are the fetal Membranes of the placenta?
Umbilical Vesicle (yolk Sac)
What germ layers form the amnion and chorion
Ectoderm and mesoderm
What germ layers form the yolk sac and allantois
endoderm and mesoderm
The embryonic trophoblast and uterine endometrium form what in mammals
What is the fetal part of the placenta developed from
Part of the chorionic sac
What is the maternal part of the placenta derived from?
The placenta and fetal membranes perform the following 5 functions or activities
3. Respiration (O2 and CO2)
4. Excretion of waste
5. Hormones produced
Functional layer that separates the uterus after parturition (childbirth)
The gravid (pregnant) endometrium
Region of the decidua that's deep to the conceptus that forms the maternal part of the placenta
Region of the decidua that's superficial of the decidua overlying the conceptus
Remaining intervening parts of the decidua (between other two layers)
The decidua increases this hormone level that helps the decidua develop and grow
Decidual cells enlarge as they accumulate what?
Glycogen and lipid
What is the decidual reaction
Syncytiotrophoblast eats decidual cells which provides nutrition for the embryo
The rapid development of trophoblast and development of chorionic sac and villi help to develop what?
The anatomy is established for exchange between mother and embryo
end of third week
During this week, complex vascular network allows for maternal embryonic exchange develops
What is the fetal part of the placenta
What is the maternal part of the placenta
What attaches the maternal part of the placenta and the fetal part?
Cytotrophoblasic shell is what?
The external layer of trophoblastic cells on the maternal surface of the placenta
What anchors the chorionic sac to the decidua basalis
Endometrial arteries and veins pass freely through gaps in the cytotrophoblastic shell and open into what?
The persistent area of chorionic villi determine what?
The chorionic villi invade decidua basalis and decidua tissue erodes to enlarge what?
Intervillious space contains
The intervillious space is derived from what?
Divides the intervillous space, the wedge-shaped area of the decidua
Part of the chorion that's associated with the intervillous space
Maternal blood enters from these
Blood vessels with low oxygen content traveling from fetus to mom
Blood vessels with high oxygen content. Contains blood from mom to fetus
The amniochorionic membrane is formed from the fusion of what?
Amnion and Chorion
When the amniochorionic membrane breaks, what is this called
What fluid is escaping when the amniochorionic membrane breaks
The preterm rupture of the amniochorionic membrane is the most common event leading to what?
These provide a large surface area where materials may be exchanged across the very thin placental membrane interposed between the fetal and maternal circulation
Branch Chorionic Villi
What separates maternal and fetal blood
What are the four layers of the placental membrane up until 20 weeks
Connective tissue of the villous
Endothelium of the fetal capillaries
After 20 weeks, which layer goes away
What are the 3 main functions of the placenta
Transport of gases and nutrients
What parts of metabolism does the placenta make
glycogen, cholesterol, and fatty acids
Sequence of uterine contractions that result in dilation of the cervix and delivery of the fetus
What three things are involved in the stress axis
Where is Cortitropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released?
Where is Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released?
Cortisol is glucocorticoids involved in the synthesis of what?
Peristaltic contractions are contractions of
uterine smooth muscle
This causes perisaltic smooth muscle uterine contractions
This increases the sensitivity of the myometrium to oxytocin
This increases myometrial contractility and production of oxytocin and prostaglandins
The fact that the estrogens cause increase oxytocin and prostaglandins which increases estrogens again is what type of reaction
Positive feedback loop
What is the first stage of labor
What's the second stage of labor
What's the third stage of labor
How long does dilation occur in a first time mom?
2nd time mom?
Average of 12 hours.
During dilation there are regular contractions how far apart
less than 10 minutes
When does placenta separation start?
When infant is born
What forms deep in the in the placenta, separating it from the uterine wall
Why does the mom not have excessive bleeding?
Contractions constrict the spiral arteries
What shape is the placenta?
What appearance does the maternal side of the placenta have?
Slightly bulging villous areas which are separated by a groove; formerly occupied by placenta septa
Placental abnormality where the chorionic villi penetrate the myometrium all the the way to the perimeter (Peritoneal Covering)
Placental abnormality where there is abnormal adherence of chorionic villi to the myometrium.
Placental abnormality where the placenta can block the cervical canal
During placenta previa, what implants close to or overlying the internal os of the uterus
The result of embryonic disc not dividing completely
Disruption of the normal signaling pathways and cues can cause what three things?
human developmental disorders
Cancer (in adults if they are turned on at the wrong time)
Communication between cells that have channels that allow ions and small molecules to freely pass
Structure of the gap junction
How many connexins is required to make one connexon?
When is the gap junction open? When is it more restricted?
Open: in early development
Restricted: in Late development
These guide differentiation and migration as well as determines morphology and function of developing organs and tissues
What type of signaling do morphogens use
Is morphogen a ligand or a receptor
Type of morphogen that helps determine the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. Helps to "Posteriorize" the body plan.
When there is excess retinoic acid, what does the body look like?
More posterior structures. Truncated. Shortened body
When there is deficient retinoic acid, what does the body look like?
More anterior structure. Elongated limbs
What is the the crucial target for retinoic acid receptors in development
Retinoic acid also helps with correct location and patterning of what?
This is a steroid/lipid vitamin with a two step process in which each step cellular retinol binding proteins help regulate concentration
What results if you don't have an appropriate concentration and regulation for vitamin A
What is in the TGF-B superfamily
TGF-B (tumor growth factor)
BMPs (Bone morphogenic proteins)
What are the functions of the TGF-B super family?
Cell Fate Decisions
Formation of specific organs and systems
What are the organs and systems formed from the TGF-B super family?
Ligands of TGF-B bind to transmembrane what?
Ser-thr Kinase Receptors
What pathway do the Ser-Thr kinase receptors follow?
In the JAK-STAT pathway, there's phosphorylation of intracellular receptor-associated what proteins?
Secreted morphogen for early patterning, cell migration, and differentiation
Comes from drosophila gene, first mamalian ortholog to drosophila
Primary receptor transmembrane protein for sonic hedgehog
PTCH (patched in humans.) [PTC-mouse]
Cells have variable _________ for response to secreted Shh
The best explained activities of Shh invertebrates development is its role in what?
patterning the ventral neural tube
High levels of shh are secreted by what?
Shh binds to what?
Without Shh patched does what?
With Shh what does patched do?
Shh is able to bind with patched and does not inhibit the membrane
Vertebrate ortholog of the drosophila gene wingless
What developmental processes does WNT/B-catenin pathway control?
Receptor that WNT can bind to?
What happens when WNT does not bind to fzd
B-cantenin is inhibited and degraded
What inhibits axin and GSK so wnt can bind to Fzd and activate B-catenin
This is a Wnt signalling disorder that has heart, neurodevelopmental and facial defects
In a Wnt signaling disorder, what is the defect in that results in congenital osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (Blindness, medulloblastoma, and juvenile osteoporosis)
LRP5 defect (Fzd defect)
Besides Williams-Beuren Syndrome and Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, what else can be a WNT signaling disorder?
What is a well-know ligand for RTK's
What are the domains of the RTK superfamily
Extracellular ligand-binding domain
What domain makes RTK's Unique and why?
Intracellular-kinase domain. Enzyme associated
What initiates intracellular signaling cascades in RTKs?
Dimerization--> transphosphorylation (phosphorylate each other)
These can form hematopoetic and endothelia cell lineages (blood and blood vessels)
What undergo vasculogenesis to form the first primitive blood vessels
This ligand causes endothelial cell increase and blood cell development
This is a receptor for VEGFA and predominates in vasculogenesis
This is a gene for lymphatic and endothelial cells
Cell Fate determination (stem cells), proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation
The Notch-Delta pathway uses what type of cell-cell signaling
Lateral and inductive
Large class of proteins that regulate the expression of many target genes
What does activation or repression of genes depend on?
1. Cell Type
2. Specific promoters
3. Chomatin gene content
4. Developmental Stage
What are three examples of transcription factors for RTK's?
bHLH (basic helix loop helix)
Mutations in Hox/Homeobox genes lead to what?
Dramatic phenotypes (like legs instead of antenae)
Are the Hox/Homeobox genes well conserved?
Conserved bipartite DNA-binding motifs important in eye development
This mutation results in eyeless drosophila or no iris in humans called aniridia
These transcription factors regulate muscle and neuronal tissue
What is the charge on bHLH DNA binding region?
What is the structure of bHLH
What inhibits cascade of bHLH genes at early or late stages of cell differentiation
Inheritable that affects gene expression other than changes in DNA sequence
Type of epigenetics that occur at cytosine residues by DNA methyltransferases (CpG sites)
Type of epigenetics in which DNA is less tightly bound to acetylated histones so there is more open access to transcription factor.
What occurs if there is more methylation on DNA
decreased gene expression
What occurs if there is less methylation on DNA
Increased gene expression
What components are needed for developmental regulation
2. Receptors and coreceptors
3. Intracellular signaling Domain
4. Adapters and effector molecules (enzymes)
5. Changes in gene expression (txn activated/repressed)
Which is not a Characteristic of signaling pathways
a. coopted at various tissues
b. Default settings
c. Many are highly conserved among species (something in an animal could be found in humans)
d. Static gene expression
e. Cross-talk among pathways
f. understanding helps us understand developmental disorders and cancer
D. Static Gene expression
Growth and functional specialization of organs
Histogenesis occurs during the last what months of gestation
Epithelial portions of histogenesis come from what germ layers?
Ectoderm and endoderm
This forms the CNS
Basic functional unit of the nervous system
Supportive functions of the nervous system which have insulating and nutritive functions
What is studied for cancers because more likely to grow and divide and cause problems
After this closes, a layer of neuroepithelial cells surround lumen and give rise to neuroepithelial stem cells
Neuron precursor cells
Neuroblasts form what layer
The mantle layer
Neuroblasts also form these which are sprouting cytoplasmic extensions indicating neuronal maturation
Longest neurite that moves signals away from the body
Shorter neurite and transmits signals toward neuron
Glial precursor cell
Insulate axon by wrapping around it forming layer of multiple plasma membranes called myelin sheath
Form the blood-bran barrier by associating with endothelial cells
This is a component of the nervous tissue that come from mesenchymal cells (like phagocytes but in the nervous system)
Axons are sent out from developing neurons which create marginal layer that form around the what layer?
What of axons cause whitish appearance of the marginal layer(called white matter of the spinal cord)
This layer contains cell bodies of neurons, unmyelinated dendrites and axons called gray matter
As the mantle layer proliferates, gray matter dorsal and ventral ridges form on both sides of what?
Dorsal ridges called what which form dorsal or afferent columns
The alar plates carry impulses to or from the spinal cord
Ventral ridges called what form ventral or efferent columns
The basal plates carry impulses to or from the spinal cord
The what plate is between 2 alar plates and most dorsal portion of the neuroepithelium
What plate is between basal plates and most ventral portion of neuroepithelium
These cells are temporarily in the roof and floor plates and keeps things developing. Helps support and develop but will be gone by the time they are finished developing.
Forms the connection from dorsal to ventral column neurons
What cells are involved in promotion and orientation of the growth of commissural axon
What part of the brain has the greatest similarity to the spinal cord
What reflexes does the medulla control
Neck, tongue and throat
The choroid plexus-releases what?
Cerebral spinal fluid
The coordination center for posture and movement
The cerebellum is formed from what plate extensions that form the cerebellar plate
What cells and granular layer form the cortex of the cerebellum
Pathway for nerve fibers from cerebellus and cerebral hemispheres to the spinal cord
Form anterior and posterior colliculi (elevations causes transverse groves)
What does colliculi mean
What is the band of neurons that connects the forebrain with the hind brain.
What's another word for cerebral peduncle
Anterior part of the mesencephalon forms what reflexes?
Posterior part of the mesencephalon forms what reflexes?
Consists of two alar plates, no basal plates, dorsal roof of ventricle formed by choroid plexis.
This part of the diencephalon forms the anterior pitutary
What parts does the diencephalon form?
Controls the ANS, pituitary gland, sleep digestion, and body temp
This forms the posterior pituitary
The antechamber of the cerebrum, sensory fibers from spinal cord and brain stem to crebrum
Controls circadian Rhythm
How many cerebral hemisphere does the telencephalon have?
This part of the telencephalon contains the olfactory bulb (smell)
This part of the telencephalon covers other brain regions and consists of 90% of cerebral hemispheres
What myelinated cells are part of the CNS
What myelinated cells are part of the PNS
Spinal nerves like the dorsal root ganglion originate only from what type of cells
Neural Crest Cells
Cranial nerves originate from neural crest and ectodermal what?
Patches of columnar epithelium in squamous backgound (raised square area patches that form various structures)
These placodes form cranial, sensory, glanlia, parts of the eye, nose and ear.
These placodes form along with neural crest cells in the cranial region, and form cranial nerve sensory ganglia
This placode form the inner ear and is the first placode to develop
This placode form the lens of the eye
This placode develops into olfactory sensory epithelia (inner lining of the nose)
Is there an oral placode
No just stomodium
What is the largest ectodermal derivative
Permanent inner layer
Stem cell layer
Keratin filled granule layer
Layer that has lost contact with the dermis
Layer of dead granular cells that become the tough outer layer
This mesenchymal layer induces epidermis structures like hair
Proliferating epidermal cells that penetrate underlying epidermis
Hair _______ forms by aggregation of dermal mesenchymal cells which is engulfed by hair bud.
Hair follicle consists of what
Hair bud and papilla
Are there blood vessels and nerve ending in the papilla
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