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Ann Roe

Personality approach (job satisfies an unconsious need) career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interest, education, and intelligence

Support for Roe's Theory

Rorschach and TAT (projective test)

Fields & levels (Roe)

utilize a two-dimensionsal system of occupational classification utilizing (fields & levels)


service,business, business contract, organizaitons, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts/entertainment


Professional & managerial 1, professional amd managerial 2; semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled


emphasize the unconscious processes in terms of career choice; felt that difficulties related to job choice are indicative of neurotic symptoms


drew upon psychoanalytic doctrine

John Holland

Self-Directed Search (SDS) to measure the six personality types- most popular approach to career choice; Individuals cycle and recycle through the developmental stages of growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline.

Personality Orientations (Holland)

corresponds to the work environment (RIASEC) Realistic; Investigative; Artistic; Social; Enterprising; Coventional

Personality (Structural) Theorist

Roe, Brill, Holland

Developmental Therorist

view career choice as an ongoing process rather than a single decision made at one point in time

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma

Developmental theorist (view career choice as an ongoing process rather than single decision made at one point)

Super Life Stages

Five life stages (1- Growth); (2-Exploration 15-24); (3-Establishment 24-44); (4-Maintenance 44-64); (5-Decline 65+) GEE MD

Super's Theory

self-concept; life career rainbow; person can play a number of potential roles as he advance through the five stages; the roles are played out in the "theaters of home, community, school, and work;


focused heavily on adult career development (five noteworthy factors) Behavior in adult years is primarily determined by social factors rather biological factors; behavior can either be a functionof one's life stage or one's age at othe times; sex differences are more powerful than age or stage differences; adults continually experience transisition which require adaptation & self-assessment; identity, intimacy, and geberativity are recurring themes in adulthood

Crites - Career Maturity

Successful completion of developmental tasks through vocational life stages

Tiedman & O'Hara

Decision-Making Theory (refers to periods of anticipation of and implementation/adjustment; Anticipation stage the individual imagines himself in a given career; Implementation phases (person engages in reality testing regarding his expectations concerning the occupation

Krumboltz Model

social learning approach to career choice (behavioristic model of career development)

Gelatt Decision Model

Refers to info as the "fuel of the decision" The Gelatt Model asserts that information can be organzied into three systems: Predictive; Value: Decision

Predictive System

Concerned with probable alternatives, acrtions, and possibilites

Decision System

provides rules and criteria for evaluatin the outcome

Linda Gottfredson's Developmental Theory of Career

Focuses on circumscription and compromise - People do restrict choices when people do compromise in regard to picking a job; they will sacrifice the field of work before they sacrifice sextype or prestige

Occupation Outlook Handbook

provides an index of job titles by SOC/DOT codes and is published every two years by the U.S. Department of Labor is the

DOT (replaced by the O-NET)

Dictionary of occupational titles (each job has a nine digit code);

Guide for Occupation Exploration

(groups of jobs listed in 14 interest areas) Help job seekers "explore" jobs that are slanted toward a given interests

Self-Efficacy Theory

based on the work of Albert Bandura

SIGI Plus, Choices, and Discover

Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems (CACG)


American Personnel and Guidance Association

Strong Interest Inventory (SCII)

based on John Holland theory (a person who is interested in a given subject will experience satisfaction in a job in which those working in the occupation have similar interests)

Self-Directed Search (SDS)

based on the work of John Holland & yields scores on his six types; self-administered; self-scored and self-interpreted


Computer career program known as the System of Interactive Guidance and Information that allows stidnets to conduct a self-assessment and explore career options

Robert Hoppock

to make an accurate career decision you must know your personal needs and then find an occupation that meets a high percentage of needs

Trait & Factor (actuarial or matching) approach

attempts to match the worker traits with the requirements of the job; usually relies on psychometric information; associated with the work of Parsons & Williamson

Henry Murray

created the needs press theory (the occupation is used to meet a person's needs)

Ginzberg & Associates

three designated stages of career development (fantasy, tentative, realistic)

Donald Super tasks of career development

Crystallization, Specification, Implementation, Stabilization, Consolidation.

Minnesota Viewpoint, expanded upon Parsons' model to create a theory of counseling which transcended vocational issues.

Edmund Griffith Williamson

Parsons and Williamson

The trait-factor or matching approach is associated with

it emphaiszes individual differences or structural differences.

Trait-factor model also known as a "structural" theory since


Trait-factor model is grounded in differential psychology

a counselor can match the correct person with the appropriate job and relies heavily on testing.

The trait-factor or actuarial approach asserts that

The Father of Vocational Guidance

Frank Parsons wrote a landmark book entitled Choosing a Vocation. Parsons has been called

attempts to match the person's traits with the requirements of the job...usually relies on psychometric associated with the work of Williamson and Parsons

The Trait-factor model

Minnesota Occupational Rating Scale

Edmund Griffith Williamson's work(Minnesota Viewpoint) purports to be scientific and didactic, utilizing test data from instruments like the



individual change throughout the life span

The Trait-factor approach fails to take ___________ into account.

the use of test results in counseling

Psychometric data refers to

based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need.

Anne Roe suggested a personality approach to career choice

and emphasized that early child rearing practices influence later career choices since a job is a major source of gratification for an unconscious need

Roe's theory is primarily psychoanalytic, but draws on Maslow's hierarchy of needs...

fields and levels.

Roe was the first career specialist to utilize a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing

service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture and arts/entertainment

Roe's fields include:

professtional and manegerial 1; professional and manegerail 2; semiprofessional/small business; skilled; semi-skilled; and unskilled

Roe's levels include

will develop a personality which gravitates toward people or away from people.

Roe spoke of three basic parenting syles: overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant. The result is that the child

lower order needs take precendnce over higher order needs. THE JOB MEETS THE "MOST URGENT NEED".

Roe's theory relies on Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the sense that in terms of career choice

the Rorschach and the TAT. ROE BEGINS WITH "R" so does RORSCHACH

Some support fot Roe's theory comes from

genetics help to determine intelligence and education, and hence this influences one's career choice.

In terms of genetics, Roe's theory would assert

the choice of career helps to satisfy an individual's needs

According to Anne Roe who categorized occupations by fields and levels


Another theorist who emphasized the unconscious process in this area of study was

solve unconscious conflicts.

Bordin felt that career choices could be used to...

are indicative of neurotic symptoms

Edwin Bordin felt that difficulties related to job choice


Another career theorist who drew upon psychoanalytic doctrines was AA Brill. Brill emphasized ___________, an ego defense mechanism.

an individual expresses an unacceptable need in a socially acceptable manner.

Sublimation occurs when


A client who becomes a professional football player because he unconsciously likes to hurt people would be utilizaing _____________ according to Brill's theory of career choice.

the work of John Holland.

Today, the most popular approach to career choice reflects


Holland categorized _____________personality orientations which correspond to analogous work environments.

realitic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising or conventional

Holland's Six personality orientations are:

Personality or structural theorists

Most experts in the field of career counseling would classify Roe, Brill and Holland as _____________theorists.

an appropriate job allows one to expres his or her personality

Counselors who support Holland's approach believe that


Holland mentioned six model orientations. A middle school counselor is most likely


Holland's theory would predict that the vice president of the United States would be


A client who wishes to work on an assembly line would fit Holland's ________typology.


Holland's psychological needs theory would say that a research chemist is primarily the _________ type.

most people are not pure personality types and thus can best be described by a distribution of types such as Realistic, Social, Investigative

In regard to an individual's behavioral style or so-called modal orientation, Holland believed that

Holland's Model

The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) is based on

similiar personality

Holland believed that a given occupation will tend to attract persons with

Henry Murray

Hoppock's theory, based on the work of __________ is also considered a personality approach.

the "needs-press" theory and the TAT projective test.

Henry Murray created

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma

Developmental career theorists view career choice as an ongoing or so-called longitudinal process rather than a single decision made at one point in time. The pioneer theorists were

Fantasy(birth-11), tentative(11-17), and realistic (17 to early 20s)

Initially, Ginzberg and his associates viewed career choice as irreversible and the result of compromises between wishes and realistic possibilities. this theory identified three stages of career development...

the process of choosing a career does not end at age 20 or adulthood; career choice decisions are really made throughout the life span; career choice is reversible

Ginzberg and his colleagues now believe in a development model of career choice which asserts that

the self-concept (HINT: both begin with "s")

The most popular developmental carer theorist is Donald Super. Super emphasizes


Super's theory emphasizes _____________ life stages.


Super's stages are:

the life-career Rainbow

Super's theory includes:

John Crites

Research into the phenomenon of career maturity(vocational maturity) reflects the work of

focused heavily on adult career development.


behavior in the adult yeas is primarily determined by social rather than biological factors; behavior can either be a function of one's life stage or one's age at other times; sex differences are actually more powerful than age or stage differences; adults continually experience transitions which require adaption and self-assessement; identity, intimacy, and generativity are recurring themes in adulthood

Schlossberg suggested five noteworthy factors in adult career development

David Tiedman and Robert O'Hara

The decision-making theory, which refers to periods of anticipation and implementation/adjustment, was proposed by

Albert Bandura

John Krumboltz postulated a social learning approach to career choice. This model is based mainly on the work of

a behavioristic model of career development...LEARNING

The model Krumboltz suggested is

individuals secure training and education to get the best possible income


suggest that chance factors influence one's career...student like his history teacher therefore decides to become a history teacher


the child will eventually secure a job commensurate with his or her family status

The status attainment theory

suggest a site visit to a work setting.

A Counselor who favors a behavioristic mode of career counseling would most likely


Trait and Factor approaches focus on:

the choice of an occupation is an expression of personality, the members of an occupational group have similar personalities and histories of personal development, occupational achievement, stability, and satisfaction depend on congruence between personality and job environment

Holland's theory assumes

Some types of persons or environments have more relationship to each other than do others.

In a 1985 refinement of his theory, Holland identified which of these secondary assumptions to his theory?

Emotional concentration - overprotecting, Avoidance - emotional rejection, Acceptance - incorporating the child into the family unit

Roe postulated which of the following child-rearing practices which might affect later vocational choice?

give more prominence to ego development, give more prominence to the role of play in human life

Bordin reformulated psychoanalytic theory to:

genetic background and environment necessarily affect the learning experiences that an individual encounters.

Social learning theory assumes

to challenge faulty beliefs.

Krumboltz and his associates believe the role of the counselor is

persons may fails to recognize that a remediable problem exists, persons may eliminate a potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriate reason, persons may suffer anguish and anxiety of perceived inability to achieve goals

Krumboltz identified several types of problems that can arise from faulty self-observation, generalizations or inaccurate interpretation of environmental conditions. They are

Dawis and Lofquist

The theory that job satisfaction and work adjustment result from correspondence between individual and environment is attributed to

each individual seeks to achieve and maintain correspondence with his or her environment.

Work adjustment theory assumes that

Milieu rewards, Emotional ties, Entry skills

Accident/Chance theory proposes that several factors influence chance encounters. Which of the following is/are on the list of factors

the prestige level of a person's job from an individual's social background

Status attainment theory predicts

an endorsement of trait and factor theory, the primary economic theory related to career development

The basic concept of Human Capital Theory in career development is

Fantasy, Tentative, Realistic

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Henna identified which of the following major periods in career choice

The individual will identify new problems to work on

In Super's maintenance stage, the following activity(ies) can be expected:

career guidance

helps a person develop skills for making decisions and to acquire information about opportunities in occupations and education.

career counseling

works within the contest of a person's values and attitudes to help him or her acquire self-understanding as well as information about careers

Using concepts from Bandura's social learning theory, the social cognitive theory is based on self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a person's belief or knowledge about what he or she is able to do and is a critical factor in choosing a career. Another key factor is personal agency, which is the person's ability to actually accomplish a goal. Performance, education, social environment and physical condition can strengthen a person's self-efficacy. Career counseling would be aimed toward increasing the client's self-efficacy.

Explain the Social Cognitive Theory of career development.

Dislocated worker

a person unemployed because of job elimination, downsizing, company relocation, or company closing.

Displaced homemaker

a woman reentering the workforce or entering it for the first time after raising a family as a stay-at-home parent - often applied to a divorced or widowed woman who must support herself and may or may not have dependent children.

Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)

a compilation of data concerning occupations, skills and abilities, work environments, salaries, etc., divided into areas of interest.

Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH)

a compilation of data concerning employment trends and outlooks, salaries, required training and education etc., published every other year by the US Department of Labor.

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

Data, persons, things are categories that are used in this classification system, published by the US Department of Labor, contains descriptions of 12,000 types of occupations and more than 28,000 job titles. It details tasks and gives educational and skill requirements for each job.

Counselor that helps a client assess her abilities, interests, values, and personality, provides occupational information about occupations that fit these traits, and helps the client make a decision.

Which of the following counselors is most accurately applying general trait and factor theory?

the idea that career choice is an extension of peoples personalities

John Holland originally started his theory with

matching categories of people's personalities to categories of occupations.

John Holland's theory of career development can best be described as

Carl Jung

Myers-Briggs type theory is based on the work of


Which of the following traits or factors does Myers-Briggs type theory most clearly address


According to Myers-Briggs type theory a preference for dealing with people and things rather than ideas would be considered a preference for


The central concept in Super's developmental theory is

Career planning

Which of Super's concepts of career maturity covers how much a student FEELS that he or she knows?

Career exploration

Harry is a tenth grader who is eager and willing to seek career information. This behavior is best described by Super's concept of

Sigmund Freud

Anne Roe's career development theory was based on the work of

parental attitudes

Which of these concepts is associated with Anne Roe's theory of career development

Roe's personality development theory

Parenting style is most important to this theory of career development

being aware of their self-efficacy

Krumboltz's recent work emphasizes the importance of individuals'

Assist clients to transform curiosity into opportunities for learning and explorations, Assist clients to develop a sense of self-efficacy, Teach clients to produce desirable chance events

According to Krumboltz, all of the following are counseling methods for dealing with changing events

self-efficacy concerns

According to social cognitive career theory, Sylvia's concern about her difficulty in learning new electrical engineering skills is an example of


When Jermaine was nine, he wanted to be a jet pilot. He thought that this would be exciting and he could fly low to the ground, seeing all kinds of places and scare people. He thought it would be neat to wear a uniform. If you were Jermaine's guidance counselor you might view Jermaine as being in this stage of Ginzberg and his colleagues

development of interests

As Jermaine reaches the age of 12, he starts to explore biology because he enjoys learning about how plants grow. According to Ginzberg, Jermaine would be in this category

development of capacities

Having completed his eighth grade year with an A in biology, Jermaine decides he will take advanced biology as well as the basic biology course in high school. He has a sense of mastery in that area of study. According to Ginzberg, Jermaine would be in this category

development of values

Jermaine is now in the tenth grade. He is completing his first high school biology course. As he has been taking the class, he has been learning about the opportunities to do microscopic research on cells and discover ways to study and possibly treat cancers. The opportunity to help others with health problems appeals to him. According to Ginzberg, Jermaine would be in this category

transition period

In the spring of his junior year, Jermaine starts to think about colleges and which ones he might be able to afford to go to. He is thinking he may want to be a medical researcher. According to Ginsberg, Jermaine would be in this category


As his guidance counselor, you would notice changes in the development of Jermaine's interests, abilities, and values. Using Ginzberg's theory, you would notice that he is in the transition period. This is similar to Super's stage of

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