Temporary but significant cooling period between 1300-1800 CE accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation. Little Ice Age (LIA), climate interval that occurred from the early 14th century through the mid-19th century, when mountain glaciers expanded at several locations, including the European Alps, New Zealand, Alaska, and the southern Andes, and mean annual temperatures across the Northern Hemisphere declined.
Effects in Europe and the North Atlantic region
-Alpine glaciers advanced far below their previous (and present) limits, obliterating farms, churches, and villages in Switzerland, France, and elsewhere.
-Frequent cold winters and cool, wet summers led to crop failures and famines over much of northern and central Europe.
-In addition, the North Atlantic cod fisheries declined as ocean temperatures fell in the 17th century.
Sig- The cause of the Little Ice Age is not known for certain; however, climatologists contend that reduced solar output, changes in atmospheric circulation, and explosive volcanism may have played roles in bringing about and extending the phenomenon.
A plantation economy is an economy based in agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the exportation of cash crops as a source of income. Prominent plantation crops included cotton, rubber, sugar cane, tobacco, figs, and rice. In the Thirteen Colonies, plantations were concentrated in the South: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. They had good soil and almost year-round growing seasons, ideal for crops such as rice and tobacco. The existence of many waterways in the region made transportation easier.Planters embraced the use of slaves mainly because indentured labor became expensive.
Some indentured servants were also leaving to start their own farms as land was widely available. Colonists tried to use Native Americans for labor, but they were susceptible to European diseases and died in large numbers. The plantation owners then turned to enslaved Africans for labor.
In 1665, there were fewer than 500 Africans in Virginia but by 1750, 85 percent of the 235,000 slaves lived in the Southern colonies, Virginia included. Africans made up 40 percent of the South's population.Enslaved Africans were brought from Africa by the English and other European powers, for their Western Hemisphere colonies. They were shipped from ports in West Africa to the New World. The journey from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean was called "the middle passage", and was one of the three legs which comprised the triangular trade among the continents of Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
The Encomienda was put in 1503. Its intent was to put order by the Spanish colonies and prevent rebellions from the natives. Allowed a social class division. At the top were the Peninsulares(Iberian Aristocrats), then The Creoles(descendants of the Peninsulares), Mestizos(Spanish/Native Indian), Mulattos(African/Spanish), African Slaves, Native American Indians.grant by the crown to a conquistador, soldier, official, or others of a specified number of Indians living in a particular area. The receiver of the grant, the encomendero, could exact tribute from the Indians in gold, in kind, or in labor and was required to protect them and instruct them in the Christian faith. The encomienda did not include a grant of land, but in practice, the encomenderos gained control of the Indians' lands and failed to fulfil their obligations to the Indian population. The crown's attempts to end the severe abuses of the system with the Laws of Burgos (1512-13) and the New Law of the Indies (1542) failed in the face of colonial opposition and, in fact, a revised form of the repartimiento system was revived after 1550. The fall of Encomiendas led to the rise of Hacienda which was a commercial agriculture. Mandatory public service in the society of the Incan Empire; one of the best inventions of the Inca government. This service was an effective form of tribute to the Inca government from labor work; meaning that an Incan citizen had to work for the government for a period of time. Similar to a public works system of our time.
-In Mita, people worked in building highways, construction of emperor and noble homes, monuments, bridges, temple fields, emperor fields, and mines. Inca soldiers, which consisted largely of conquered, non-Incan people returning tribune to their overlords, largely benefited from this system. Inca soldiers enjoyed the pleasure of going into wars without worrying for the health of their families and fields back home, since their fields were taken care of by their families back at home.
Sig- Later on in history, the Spanish empire utilized this system fiercely to strengthen their economy. Although, this system led to a series of rebellions and conflicts from the civilian's distress of the abusive labor to family life (family members frequently assigned to secondary labor tasks that depleted the labor from the larger community). A future negative effect on the Spanish economy.
The people of New Guinea were probably the first to domesticate sugarcane, sometime around 8,000 BC. However, the extraction and purifying technology techniques were developed by people who were living in India. After domestication, its cultivation spread rapidly to Southeast Asia and southern China. India, where the process of refining cane juice into granulated crystals was developed, was often visited by imperial convoys (such as those from China) to learn about cultivation and sugar refining. By the sixth century AD, sugar cultivation and processing had reached Persia; and, from there that knowledge was brought into the Mediterranean by the Arab expansion."Wherever they went, the (medieval) Arabs brought with them sugar, the product and the technology of its production."
Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest in the fifteenth century carried sugar southwest of Iberia. Henry the Navigator introduced cane to Madeira in 1425, while the Spanish, having eventually subdued the Canary Islands, introduced sugar cane to them.In 1493, on his second voyage, Christopher Columbus carried sugarcane seedlings to the New World in particular, Hispaniola.
The Palace of Versailles is the central part of a complex that housed the French government, most notably its royalty. King Louis XIII of France was responsible for the Palace of Versailles, a castle in the town of Versailles. Versailles in the early 17th century was teeming with wildlife. Louis XIII, a big hunter, decided to establish a small brick and stone chateau there. When he was named lord of Versailles in the 1630s, Louis III decided to expand the chateau, purchasing more land and an estate before his death in 1643. The next French ruler who came to Versailles was King Louis XIV, also known as the 'Sun King' because of his belief in a centralized government with the king at the center. Louis XIV saw the chateau at Versailles as a small and insignificant domicile, so he planned to redesign it, adding north and south wings and other buildings on the estate grounds.
Connect- After the French Revolution in 1789, it ceased to be a permanent royal residence.
The Songhai Empire was a state located in Western Africa near Dahomey (what is now the Republic of Benin) and Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), and stretched to Bussa in Northern Nigeria. Its capital was the city of Gao, near modern day Zaghawa.The Songhai Empire fell at the hands of the Moroccan sultans, who had been for long aspiring to seize the empire. Songhai kings had been appointing sultans of Morocco until 1585. When the country splintered into dozens of smaller kingdoms due to internal conflicts and civil wars, the Moroccans took advantage of this opportunity to achieve their long ambitions in the empire. This was how the Marrakech invasion of the Songhai Empire happened.
In the years that followed, the Muslims in West Africa became estranged to Islam, hence diverse myths, superstitions, innovations, and delusions spread among them. However, because Allaah the Exalted Protects His True religion, He Chose certain people to renew and revive Islam in this country. The resurgence was achieved through a number of Islamic movements that were led by a number of pious Muslim scholars and Mujtahids.
In Latin American colonial society, class dictated people's places in society and jobs. At the top of Spanish-American society were the peninsulares, people who had been born in Spain, which is on the Iberian Peninsula. They formed a tiny percentage of the population. Only peninsulares could hold high office in Spanish colonial government. Creoles, Spaniards born in Latin America, were below the peninsulares. Creoles could not hold high-level political office, but they could rise as officers of Spanish colonial armies. Together the two controlled land, wealth, and power in the Spanish colonies. Below peninsulares and creoles, came the mestizos, persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry. After, the mulattos, persons of mixed European and African ancestry and lastly in the society were the enslaved Africans. Indians were at the bottom of the bottom, however. Ottoman-Safavid War of 1623-1639 was the last of a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, then the two major powers of the Near East, over control of Mesopotamia. After initial Persian success in recapturing Baghdad and most of modern Iraq, having lost it for several years, the war became a stalemate as the Persians were unable to press further into the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottomans themselves were distracted by wars in Europe and weakened by internal turmoil. Eventually, the Ottomans were able to recover Baghdad, and the signing of the Treaty of Zuhab ended the war in an Ottoman victory, with Mesopotamia, despite parts of it being briefly taken several times further on in history by the Persians notably by Nader Shah, it remained thenceforth in Ottoman hands until lost in the aftermath of World War I. (1492-1898) - Spain led European global exploration and colonial expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Trade flourished across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Toppling the Aztec and Inca civilizations, Spain laid claim to vast territories in North and South America. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power, dominating the oceans as well as European battlefields. Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed a long series of European and North African wars. Until the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire was the largest in the world, although it suffered fluctuating military and economic fortunes.
Sig- Confronted by the new experiences, difficulties, and suffering created by empire-building, Spanish thinkers formulated some of the first modern ideas on natural law, sovereignty, international law, war, and economics—even questioning the legitimacy of imperialism.
Portugal is a small country located in Western Europe at the western tip of the Iberian Peninsula. Beginning in the 1400s, the Portuguese, led by famous explorers like Bartolomeo Dias and Vasco de Gama and financed by the great Prince Henry the Navigator, sailed to, explored, and settled in South America, Africa, and Asia. Portugal's empire, which survived for more than six centuries, sig --was the first of the great European global empires. Its former possessions are now located in across fifty countries around the world. The Portuguese created colonies for numerous reasons - to trade for spices, gold, agricultural products and other resources, to create more markets for Portuguese goods, to spread Catholicism, and to "civilize" the natives of these distant places. Portugal's colonies brought great wealth to this small country. The empire gradually declined because Portugal did not have enough people or resources to maintain so many overseas territories. The permanent destruction of land in order to make space for other things
or use the wood for other purposes. The Spanish first cut down forests in the Caribbean to make pastures for the cattle they brought, and deforestation accelerated when more areas were cleared for plantations. In North America, shipbuilding in the northern English colonies took its toll on forests. Deforestation was also taking place in Europe during this period. Timber was needed for ships, buildings, wagons, barrels, and many other items. Wood shortages were made worse by the Little Ice Age that began in Europe during the 1590s. People burned wood to keep warm, and by the mid-17th century, forests were growing scarce and wood prices skyrocketed.
Sig- This wood shortage encouraged the use of coal for fuel, and since England had coal in great supply, deforestation almost certainly helped their economy grow.
Empires expanded and conquered new peoples around the world, but they often had difficulties incorporating culturally, ethnically, and religiously diverse subjects, and administrating widely dispersed territories.
Agents of the European powers moved into existing trade networks around the world. In Africa and the greater Indian Ocean, nascent European empires consisted mainly of interconnected trading posts and enclaves.
In the Americas, European empires moved more quickly to settlement and territorial control, responding to local demographic and commercial conditions.
Moreover, the creation of European empires in the Americas quickly fostered a new Atlantic trade system that included the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Around the world, empires and states of varying sizes pursued strategies of centralization, including more efficient taxation systems that placed strains on peasant producers, sometimes prompting local rebellions.
Rulers used public displays of art and architecture to legitimize state power. African states shared certain characteristics with larger Eurasian empires.
Changes in African and global trading patterns strengthened some West and Central African states — especially on the coast;
Sig- this led to the rise of new states and contributed to the decline of states on both the coast and in the interior.
empires at sea
- Spanish empire - purpose- exploit gold and provide population outlet; conquistadors established this empire; predominantly located in the Americas (exception is the Philippines)
- Portuguese empire - Bustling trade empire built throughout the Indian Ocean. Extended control after defeating Muslim fleet and captured Goa which was made the capital of their trading empire. After this, they seized the Strait of Malacca which gave them control of the Moluccas also known as the Spice Islands.
- England - had colonies in North America, India, and the West Indies. Most lands were owned by the gentry class and worked by slaves and tenants. Very patriarchal. North American colonies practiced self-government. Directed by joint-stock companies. Mainly traded tea, sugar, tobacco and later, cotton. Manipulated the markets rather than outright attacking them. Natives were wiped out by diseases. Rivalry with France. Competition with other empires. High literacy rates. Mixed religions in colonies
- Dutch - Colonies on spice islands. Calvinism was dominant. Trading companies received charters from the government. Main trade was in spices. Highly commercialized society. Brutalized native population. Worked with China for a brief period of time. Profit over faith.
- Ottoman Empire - A Muslim empire, based in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), that controlled southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and most of North Africa between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries
- Mughal - Advancement in firearms, loosened and tightened restrictions on Hindus and women, centralized ruling
- Russia - Religiously tolerant but preferred orthodoxy, powerful military kept order and aided expansion, supported westernization
- Qing - Confucian, bureaucratic techniques, controlled terms of trade, military techniques
The Imperial expansion is when an imperialistic country expands by taking over other territories or countries.
1) The Ottoman Empire formed in 1453 thanks to military might and the use of gunpowder weapons.
-The Ottomans first originated in the 1300s as a group of semi-nomadic Turks in northwest Anatolia, who replaced the Mongols as the dominant political power using military power.
-In 1453 the Ottomans were able to capture Constantinople, end the Byzantine Empire, and form their own empire.
2) Previous Ming authority collapsed in China in the early 1600s, and the powerful, aggressive Manchus took control to establish the Qing dynasty.
-The Manchus expanded their empire with military conquest, and they reorganized their army into a powerful unit.
3) By the 18th century, Europeans had standardized gunpowder, cannons, and handguns, and made them more efficient.
-They fought wars using huge standing armies with a professional officer corps and effective artillery.
-Europeans used their gunpowder weapons to intimidate, kill, and conquer New World empires, which could not stand up to these powerful weapons.
-Hernán Cortés was able to conquer the vast Aztec empire (1519) with a small Spanish force in part because the Spanish fought to kill with their steel swords and gunpowder, while the Aztecs fought to capture with more primitive weapons.
-Francisco Pizarro's Spanish campaign in the Incan empire (1532) was successful in part because the Incans were awed by Spanish horses and guns, and did not understand how to protect themselves against Spanish weapons.
Restructure of society: new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies
1) The Spanish conquest of the New World and establishment of profitable colonies led to a restructuring of the social order
-Between 1492 and 1750, the Spanish created settlements along the coasts of Central and South America, each growing profitable crops or mining for precious metals
-While these colonies initially grew on Native American labor (the encomienda and repartimiento systems), they later switched to importing African slave labor
-Many men migrated from Spain and Portugal to the New World colonies, looking for economic opportunity (few women did)
-As European men intermarried with Native Americans and Africans, they created new social classes based on race
-The peninuslares (direct European migrants) were the highest social class, as were their descendants, the Creoles
-The mestizos (mix of Europeans and Native Americans) and the mulattoes (mix of European and Africans) came below
Native Americans, Africans, and the zambos (mix of Native Americans and Africans) were at the bottom of the social hierarchy
2) Similar intermarriage occurred in European North American colonies, where the preponderance of male colonists led to intermarriage with Native American women.
-In both Spanish and British American colonies, European colonizers and missionaries imposed their beliefs on Native Americans, which led to cultural adaptations on both sides
-Unlike in other European colonial outposts, New World settlers had military and economic power to impose their culture and religion on natives
3) Catholic missionaries (Dominican, Jesuit, Franciscan) studied Indian beliefs and rituals and used this knowledge in their efforts to convert Indians to Christianity
-Most converted Native Americans merged indigenous beliefs with Christian ones created syncretic beliefs
-Many Indian groups adopted their European captives colonists captured by Indians often refused to return to colonial life
1. Justifications for slavery
a. English - partially racism of Africans
b. Prisoners captured in battle
1. Defeated Russians, Slavs, Germans, Poles sent to Istanbul
2. Mamluks - Turkish/Mongol slave soldiers that fought for Egypt
2. External Slave Trade
a. Began around the 1100s when Africans supplied captives to Arab merchants
b. Portuguese bought for European market
1. Before in East Africa, trade relatively small
2. When Portuguese left in the 1700s, trading cities of East Coast took over
i. Swahili cities provided slaves to plantation islands off E. Africa
a. Also to Arabian Peninsula
c. Origins of slavery in Americas
1. Spanish in sugar islands of Caribbean
i. Replaced Native Americans
2. 1619 Dutch ship at Jamestown dropped off slaves
i. Initially treated like indentured servants, not slaves
ii. But...when large numbers needed for tobacco farming, policy changed
3. 1640 - Africans went from indentured servants to slaves for life - "Durante vita"
4. Northern colonies did not keep slaves in mass numbers
i. lacked farms that had a large-scale labor intensive crops
a. Climate/terrain unsuitable
5. English institutionalized slavery
i. needed cheap, abundant labor
ii. viewed Africans with language/culture as less than human
iii. Native Americans not useful
a. runaways, disease, easily hide in forest
iv. Indentured servitude
a. runways can blend in
b. only have labor for specific time
v. Supply seemed limitless
a. W. Africa
b. Natural increase - birth
3. Largest system of slavery - came mostly from West Africa
a. Plantations of the Caribbean
b. Southern British Colonies
1. tobacco, rice, indigo
4. Plantation system
a. Required cheap, abundant labor
1. Sub-Saharan Africa filled need
5. Legal rights
a. No legal rights
b. slave marriages are not recognized
c. slaves could not own property
d. little protection from cruel owner
e. could be sold away from families
f. illegal to teach a slave to read or write
6. Consequences of slavery
1. depopulated - captured youngest and healthiest
2. randomness of slave raids - cross-section of society taken
i. farmer, leaders, craftworker, mother,
3. Arts and technology suffered - could make money from slave trade
4. Sudanic empires lost importance - decline in interior empires
i. Focus of power shifted to coast
5. Desire for more wealth, power, guns increased cycle
6. Africans seen as inferior - helped with justification
i. Affected race relations to this day
1. Debtor provides service until debt is paid off
2. Debt bondage basis of tenant farming and sharecropping in the US after Civil War
a. Slaves essentially tied to land
3. Prevalent in Latin America and still exists today