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A plantation economy is an economy based in agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the exportation of cash crops as a source of income. Prominent plantation crops included cotton, rubber, sugar cane, tobacco, figs, and rice. In the Thirteen Colonies, plantations were concentrated in the South: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. They had good soil and almost year-round growing seasons, ideal for crops such as rice and tobacco. The existence of many waterways in the region made transportation easier.Planters embraced the use of slaves mainly because indentured labor became expensive.

Some indentured servants were also leaving to start their own farms as land was widely available. Colonists tried to use Native Americans for labor, but they were susceptible to European diseases and died in large numbers. The plantation owners then turned to enslaved Africans for labor.

In 1665, there were fewer than 500 Africans in Virginia but by 1750, 85 percent of the 235,000 slaves lived in the Southern colonies, Virginia included. Africans made up 40 percent of the South's population.Enslaved Africans were brought from Africa by the English and other European powers, for their Western Hemisphere colonies. They were shipped from ports in West Africa to the New World. The journey from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean was called "the middle passage", and was one of the three legs which comprised the triangular trade among the continents of Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
empires at sea
- Spanish empire - purpose- exploit gold and provide population outlet; conquistadors established this empire; predominantly located in the Americas (exception is the Philippines)
- Portuguese empire - Bustling trade empire built throughout the Indian Ocean. Extended control after defeating Muslim fleet and captured Goa which was made the capital of their trading empire. After this, they seized the Strait of Malacca which gave them control of the Moluccas also known as the Spice Islands.
- England - had colonies in North America, India, and the West Indies. Most lands were owned by the gentry class and worked by slaves and tenants. Very patriarchal. North American colonies practiced self-government. Directed by joint-stock companies. Mainly traded tea, sugar, tobacco and later, cotton. Manipulated the markets rather than outright attacking them. Natives were wiped out by diseases. Rivalry with France. Competition with other empires. High literacy rates. Mixed religions in colonies
- Dutch - Colonies on spice islands. Calvinism was dominant. Trading companies received charters from the government. Main trade was in spices. Highly commercialized society. Brutalized native population. Worked with China for a brief period of time. Profit over faith.
- Ottoman Empire - A Muslim empire, based in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), that controlled southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and most of North Africa between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries
- Mughal - Advancement in firearms, loosened and tightened restrictions on Hindus and women, centralized ruling
- Russia - Religiously tolerant but preferred orthodoxy, powerful military kept order and aided expansion, supported westernization
- Qing - Confucian, bureaucratic techniques, controlled terms of trade, military techniques
The Imperial expansion is when an imperialistic country expands by taking over other territories or countries.

1) The Ottoman Empire formed in 1453 thanks to military might and the use of gunpowder weapons.
-The Ottomans first originated in the 1300s as a group of semi-nomadic Turks in northwest Anatolia, who replaced the Mongols as the dominant political power using military power.
-In 1453 the Ottomans were able to capture Constantinople, end the Byzantine Empire, and form their own empire.

2) Previous Ming authority collapsed in China in the early 1600s, and the powerful, aggressive Manchus took control to establish the Qing dynasty.
-The Manchus expanded their empire with military conquest, and they reorganized their army into a powerful unit.

3) By the 18th century, Europeans had standardized gunpowder, cannons, and handguns, and made them more efficient.
-They fought wars using huge standing armies with a professional officer corps and effective artillery.
-Europeans used their gunpowder weapons to intimidate, kill, and conquer New World empires, which could not stand up to these powerful weapons.
-Hernán Cortés was able to conquer the vast Aztec empire (1519) with a small Spanish force in part because the Spanish fought to kill with their steel swords and gunpowder, while the Aztecs fought to capture with more primitive weapons.
-Francisco Pizarro's Spanish campaign in the Incan empire (1532) was successful in part because the Incans were awed by Spanish horses and guns, and did not understand how to protect themselves against Spanish weapons.
Role of Gender in Empire
1) Women secondary status most parts of globe - patriarchal
2) China- wage earners
3)Marriage remained primarily economic arrangement
-Method of gaining/transferring wealth and property
-Ensured inheritance of goods/assets by legitimate heirs
-With Protestant Reformation gained more marriages based on love
3) Europe gained limited awareness of injustices toward women
-Europe - limited access to small # of women
-Noble/aristocratic women
-From emerging middle class
-Gained education
-Active in business
-Make scientific discoveries
-Become artists/writers
4) Women discovered/developed ways to gain influence/advance desires
-Advising husbands/sons
-Educating children
-Running/help running business
-Managing household finances
5) Generalizations
-Higher up in social class - more freedom to be involved in education/arts - servants did work
-Lower down social scale - more time spent w/ family, in fields, tending livestock
6) Cities opened up opportunities for women for crafts/engage in commerce
-Higher status of women negatives
-Less value to contribution
-More need to be protected
7) Women more valued in lower class - contribution more needed
-Urban/commercial vs. rural/agricultural vs. hierarchical/decentralized
-Confucianism governed relationship of women to families
-Obey fathers and brothers and then husbands
-Always of subservience
-Influenced Japan
-Women obeyed fathers, husbands, and if widowed, sons
Muslim world
-Harem shows how culture defines roles
-Initially, Arabic women had freedom/rights
-Eventually adopted new ideologies
-Veiling from non-Arab converts
-Wealthy Muslims separated women in their households by -placing in harems
-Special sections of house for all female members, young sons, servants
Restructure of society: new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies
1) The Spanish conquest of the New World and establishment of profitable colonies led to a restructuring of the social order
-Between 1492 and 1750, the Spanish created settlements along the coasts of Central and South America, each growing profitable crops or mining for precious metals
-While these colonies initially grew on Native American labor (the encomienda and repartimiento systems), they later switched to importing African slave labor
-Many men migrated from Spain and Portugal to the New World colonies, looking for economic opportunity (few women did)
-As European men intermarried with Native Americans and Africans, they created new social classes based on race
-The peninuslares (direct European migrants) were the highest social class, as were their descendants, the Creoles
-The mestizos (mix of Europeans and Native Americans) and the mulattoes (mix of European and Africans) came below
Native Americans, Africans, and the zambos (mix of Native Americans and Africans) were at the bottom of the social hierarchy

2) Similar intermarriage occurred in European North American colonies, where the preponderance of male colonists led to intermarriage with Native American women.
-In both Spanish and British American colonies, European colonizers and missionaries imposed their beliefs on Native Americans, which led to cultural adaptations on both sides
-Unlike in other European colonial outposts, New World settlers had military and economic power to impose their culture and religion on natives

3) Catholic missionaries (Dominican, Jesuit, Franciscan) studied Indian beliefs and rituals and used this knowledge in their efforts to convert Indians to Christianity
-Most converted Native Americans merged indigenous beliefs with Christian ones created syncretic beliefs
-Many Indian groups adopted their European captives colonists captured by Indians often refused to return to colonial life
A. Slavery
1. Justifications for slavery
a. English - partially racism of Africans
b. Prisoners captured in battle
1. Defeated Russians, Slavs, Germans, Poles sent to Istanbul
2. Mamluks - Turkish/Mongol slave soldiers that fought for Egypt
2. External Slave Trade
a. Began around the 1100s when Africans supplied captives to Arab merchants
b. Portuguese bought for European market
1. Before in East Africa, trade relatively small
2. When Portuguese left in the 1700s, trading cities of East Coast took over
i. Swahili cities provided slaves to plantation islands off E. Africa
a. Also to Arabian Peninsula
c. Origins of slavery in Americas
1. Spanish in sugar islands of Caribbean
i. Replaced Native Americans
2. 1619 Dutch ship at Jamestown dropped off slaves
i. Initially treated like indentured servants, not slaves
ii. But...when large numbers needed for tobacco farming, policy changed
3. 1640 - Africans went from indentured servants to slaves for life - "Durante vita"
4. Northern colonies did not keep slaves in mass numbers
i. lacked farms that had a large-scale labor intensive crops
a. Climate/terrain unsuitable
5. English institutionalized slavery
i. needed cheap, abundant labor
ii. viewed Africans with language/culture as less than human
iii. Native Americans not useful
a. runaways, disease, easily hide in forest
iv. Indentured servitude
a. runways can blend in
b. only have labor for specific time
v. Supply seemed limitless
a. W. Africa
b. Natural increase - birth
3. Largest system of slavery - came mostly from West Africa
a. Plantations of the Caribbean
b. Southern British Colonies
1. tobacco, rice, indigo
c. Brazil
4. Plantation system
a. Required cheap, abundant labor
1. Sub-Saharan Africa filled need
5. Legal rights
a. No legal rights
b. slave marriages are not recognized
c. slaves could not own property
d. little protection from cruel owner
e. could be sold away from families
f. illegal to teach a slave to read or write
6. Consequences of slavery
a. Africa
1. depopulated - captured youngest and healthiest
2. randomness of slave raids - cross-section of society taken
i. farmer, leaders, craftworker, mother,
3. Arts and technology suffered - could make money from slave trade
4. Sudanic empires lost importance - decline in interior empires
i. Focus of power shifted to coast
5. Desire for more wealth, power, guns increased cycle
6. Africans seen as inferior - helped with justification
i. Affected race relations to this day
B. Peonage
1. Debtor provides service until debt is paid off
2. Debt bondage basis of tenant farming and sharecropping in the US after Civil War
a. Slaves essentially tied to land
3. Prevalent in Latin America and still exists today
C. Serfdom