23 terms

Weathering , Erosion , Soil

7-4.4 Explain the effects of soil quality on the characteristics of an ecosystem. Taxonomy level: 2.7-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge
Soil Composition
Describes how soil is a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic material, air, and water
Soil structure/Particle size
Classified by size ranging from coarse sand to very fine sand to silt, and finally to clay
How freely water flows through open spaces between soil particles
Refers to the fact that soil can be basic or acidic
Soil profile
Soils form in layers, or horizons, and all the layers make up this
Soil particles that are larger than 2 mm
Soil properties
Can be observed (such as soil profile, composition, texture or particle size), or measured, (such as permeability and pH).
Soil Texture
Depends on the size of individual soil particles and is determined by the proportions of particle sizes that make up the soil
Topsoil/Subsoil/ Parent material
3 layers of soil
Soil Horizon
A layer of soil that differs in color and texture from layers above and below it
Decayed organic material in soil
Open spaces between the soil particles that allow water to flow through
Chemical or physical process that breaks down rocks into smaller pieces
Process by which weathered rock and soil are moved from one place to another.
mechanical weathering
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
A wearing away or rubbing away by friction.
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
chemical weathering
the process by which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions
acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to earth as rain,snow, or fog.
Differential weathering
The process by which softer, less weather resistant rocks wear away and leave harder, more weather resistant rocks behind.
Parent rock
a rock formation that is the source of soil
The solid layer of rock beneath the soil
removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
soil conservation

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