Upgrade to remove ads
Final Exam (Ch. 12, 13, &14)
Terms in this set (43)
Understand the idea of Radiative energy balance and Radiative Equilibrium.
a. What will happen if Earth absorbs more power than it emits?
Radiative energy balance - Radiation reflected back into space
Radiative equilibrium - Incoming and outgoing energy are =
If earth absorbs more power than it emits, then the earth's temperature increases, and the loss rate increases until equilibrium is reached again.
What is the Zero Dimensional Energy Balance Model and how does its prediction
about Earth's radiative equilibrium temperature compare with the observed value?
Education shows how Earth's input and output of energy are equal. T(Earth's temp) = 255k (warmer than the predicted temperature of Earth)
Why does the zero dimensional energy balance model fail to predict the correct
equilibrium temperature for Earth and Venus? Which of the inner planets has the
highest greenhouse effect warming and which one has the lowest?
It does not account for the warming effect of Earth and Venus. Venus has 503C warming effect and Mars has 0C.
What is greenhouse effect?
Greenhouse gasses inhibit outgoing radiation
What are the major greenhouse gases present in Earth's atmosphere and which of
these gases has the dominant contribution to the greenhouse effect?
Methane, CO2, Nitrus Oxide, and Ozone. CO2 is the most dominant contributor to the warming effect.
What are the two models that were employed to understand the greenhouse effect?
Blanket & Two box model.
For a given concentration of greenhouse gases (fixed ea) which will enhance the
greenhouse warming - a cooler atmosphere or a warmer atmosphere?
Why does a strengthened greenhouse effect results in the warming of lower
atmosphere and the simultaneous cooling of upper atmosphere?
Ozone filters out radiation
What is the meaning of the term albedo?
Albedo - fraction of solar energy radiated back into space from clouds
Which of the inner planets has the highest albedo and which has the lowest albedo?
Highest - Venus
Lowest - Mars
Which is the dominant factor contributing to Venus's huge surface temperature - its
proximity to the Sun or the greenhouse effect?
What is the meaning of the term Climate Forcing? When is it positive and when is it negative?
Thermostat mechanism to help Earth return to equillibrium
(+) = warming
(-) = cooling
Determine the sign of the radiative forcing for the following situations? a. Increase / decrease in sun's luminosity,
b. Large scale glaciation / de-glaciation of Earth's surface,
c. Increased cloud cover of low altitude clouds/ high altitude clouds? d. Volcanic activity (section 13.4 - page 348).
What is the meaning of the term anthropogenic forcing?
human caused climate
What is climate sensitivity? What is the range of the best estimate of Earth's climate
climate change in response to forcing
Range is 2C to 4.5C
Examples of positive feedback cycles and negative feedback cycles.
Positive - New equillibrium state
Negative - Back to original state
What are ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)? What are HydroChloroFluoroCarbons
(HCFCs)? Why are HCFCs preferred over CFCs? What are the effects of HCFCs on
CFC's destroy the ozone
HCFC's include hydrogen and destroy less of the ozone
What is the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases?
relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere -expressed as a factor of CO2
What is the prominent anthropogenic greenhouse gas?
If carbon-dioxide has the lowest global warming potential among the greenhouse
gases why is it a problem? (Hint: long term fate of carbon-dioxide).
CO2 increases with time - 1,000 year long lifetime
What causes the Stratospheric Ozone Depletion? Why is the ozone hole found only
in the polar region?
CFC's cause depletion in ozone, and low temperatures allow formation of low clouds
What are Aerosols? What is the net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate
forcing? Do the aerosols lead to positive forcing or negative forcing? What is the
main source of sulfate aerosols?
Aerosols - (particulate matter) cause negative forcing
Sulfate aerosols come from coal combustion
What is a Natural Carbon Cycle? What is the difference between Carbon Emission
and Carbon-dioxide emission (Refer back to Box 5.1 - Page 102 if you want)? Why do we stick to carbon and not to carbon-dioxide emissions when we talk about the carbon cycle?
plants remove carbon from atmosphere. both plants and animals burn carbon through respirations, returning it to atmosphere.
b) there are 3.67 x as much CO2 in the air as Carbon, and they occur in different chemical forms throughout the cycle
How much of carbon is there in Earth's atmosphere, in land and in oceans? Why it is that most of the oceanic carbon is irrelevant in the short-term carbon cycle? (Section 13.5)
atmosphere - 800 GT
land - 2,000 GT in soils
oceans - 39,000 Gt
It never surfaces to be put into the cycle
How has the atmospheric carbon content changed from the preindustrial times?
from 1750-2010 it changed from 560 GT to 800 GT
How does the rate at which carbon is released to the atmosphere, through fossil fuel burning, compare with the rate at which carbon is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis?
Fossil fuel burning releases 9 GT for the atmosphere each year (and is still rising)
Photosynthesis removes 110 GT
What is the typical atmospheric lifetime of an individual carbon-dioxide molecule? Why does Table 13.1 list atmospheric life time of carbon-dioxide as 1000 years? (Figure 13.12)
typical lifetime is 5 years. Anthropogenic carbon increases net value of atmospheric Carbon, which increases lifetime
If humans stopped dumping carbon-dioxide into the atmosphere "today" what fraction of anthropogenic carbon will still be there in the atmosphere after thousand years? (Fig 13.12)
25% of anthropogenic Carbon would stay in atmosphere even after 1,000 years
By how much (in %) has the atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentration increased from its pre-industrial value?
40% increase in CO2 since 1750
What are the problems in defining a global average temperature?
temperature measurement methods were uncertain back in 19th century. Also, anomalies occur which make it difficult to accurately define a global average temperature.
What is the Urban Heat Island Effect?
Cause an increase in temp (.05C)
caused by black pavements, deforestation, cars, etc.
Why are temperature anomalies more important than the absolute value of
Temperature anomolies are well correlated over large distances.... result in some average that are most accurate.
What are the four stages seen in the temperature anomaly measurements after 1750 to
present? [Figure 14.1]
Steady average (1850-1910)
Steep rise (1975-2000)
By how much (on an average) has the Earth's surface temperature increased in the
about .9 C
Is global warming uniform all over the world? If not, where is it prominent?
It is unevenly distributed - more in Northern Hemisphere and warmer on land than over oceans. Arctic has warmed 2x the global rate (ice-albedo)
What trend is observed in the ocean heat content since the mid twentieth century?
ocean heat content has increased around 6(10^22 J) since 1950.
What are Microwave Sounding Units (MSUs)? What trend is observed in the MSU
analysis of the temperature anomalies of lower troposphere and lower
MSU's- measure atmospheric microwave emissions
Lower Troposphere warmed
Lower Stratosphere cooled
What causes the cycles of glaciations? What are interglacials? What is the
approximate duration of the interglacial phase in a glaciation cycle (ice-age)? Why the fluctuations in the orbital parameters alone cannot explain the severity of climate variations seen during the glaciation cycles?
Glaciation cycles are caused by Earth's orbit and tilt of axis
Interglacials - warm, short period between ice ages
-usually last around 10,000 years
- we must take into account the feedback process and CO2 cycle
What is the Younger Dryas Event? Was this a warming event or a cooling event? How rapid was the temperature change during this event? Was this a global event or a local event?
Cooling Event. Sharp decline in temperature over most of Northern Hemisphere. A decline of 2C to 6C. Global event
What are the indicators for the global climate change other than the temperature?
Sea levels, Glaciers melting, Humidity, Ice and snow cover, Speices ranges, and Tropical storms
What are the evidences for anthropogenic climate change?
Fossil fuel combustion, greenhouse gasses caused by cars' exhaust
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Environmental Physics Midterm 3
Emerging and Re emerging infectious Diseases
Environmental Physics Study Guide 1 (Georgia South…
Environmental In - Class Quizzes - PHYS 1149
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Environmental Physics: Final Exam Study Guide
Astronomy test 3
Chem Chapter 3 MC
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Physics test #2
Physics Midterm test 2
Physics Test 1. Chapters 1-4