chapter 12 ways of the world
Terms in this set (57)
What was a possible reason why Australian hunter-gatherers did not develop farming societies?
They did not need to farm to master their environment.
The agricultural civilizations of West Africa were characterized by what kind(s) of government?
A mixture of stateless societies and more highly centralized kingdoms
Which of the following was NOT a value of the Iroquois League of Five Nations that some European colonists found attractive?
The conquest of Timur was the last military success of what kinds of people from Central Asia, before the coming of the Russian and Chinese empires?
What was the main reason that Emperor Yongle sent Zheng He on his voyages?
To draw distant lands into the Chinese tribute system of trade
Why did the Ming government suddenly stop the exploration of the Indian Ocean basin?
Emperor Yongle's successors viewed expansion as a waste of time and resources.
The Hundred Years' War between England and France (1337-1453) was comparable to which conflict in Ming dynasty China during the fifteenth century?
There were no similar conflicts in Ming dynasty China in the fifteenth century, as it was internally unified, unlike Europe.
The Renaissance was an era in which educated Europeans sought to "return to the sources." What sources?
The art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome
Just after Ming dynasty China withdrew from the Indian Ocean and East Africa, which European power began to expand into the void left behind by the Chinese?
All of the following are reasons why Europeans put so much effort into expanding their power, while Chinese withdrew into their borders during the fifteenth century, EXCEPT:
The Europeans had more ships, armies, and wealth to fund their exploration than the Ming state, which was large but poor.
How did the Songhay Empire fit into the Islamic world of the fifteenth century?
It was a substantial Islamic state on the West African frontier of the Islamic world.
A North African traveler described Timbuktu, the capital of the Songhay Empire, as
a vibrant center of cultural, intellectual, and commercial activity.
Muslim travelers described the Islamic port of Malacca as
a dangerous and lawless nest of thieves and cheaters.
Which of the following was NOT a feature of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán?
A lack of pyramids and temples
Why did the Aztecs perform ritual human sacrifice?
They believed the victims' blood replenished the energy of the sun.
In what ways did the Inca and Aztec empires differ substantially from each other?
The Inca Empire built an elaborate bureaucracy to integrate its subjects; the Aztecs did not.
How did the Aztec and Inca empires treat women?
Women had separate roles from men, but those roles were seen as equally important.
All of the following pairs of societies shared a common religion EXCEPT
Mexican and Andean.
Which of the following was NOT a feature of the modern era in the centuries following 1500?
Growing equality among entire regions and civilizations
Which of the following "what ifs" might have most drastically altered world history by not leading to European dominance?
What if the Chinese authorities had not called their fleet back from its explorations in 1433?
The Chinookan, Tulalip, Skagit, and other peoples of northwestern North America were _______________ gathering and hunting cultures.
"complex" or "affluent"
The Igbo, Yoruba, and Bini peoples represented different types of agricultural societies in _________________.
the Amazon River basin
The constant warfare between the Onondaga, Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, and Mohawk tribes was ended by the creation of the _________________.
Iroquois League of Five Nations
The culturally sophisticated capital of Timur's empire was ______________.
The pastoral Fulbe of West Africa slowly adopted ______________ as a religion as they drifted eastward.
The period of remarkable expansion by Zheng He occurred during the _____________ century.
Much of the nation building in Europe during the fifteenth century was driven by the needs of ____________.
In The Prince, one of the most influential writings in European history, author Niccolò Machiavelli writes that it is better for a ruler to be ____________ than to be loved.
The crews of early European explorers such as Columbus and da Gama were ___________ in comparison to the number of crew members aboard Zheng He's fleet.
The most impressive and enduring of the new Islamic states of Afro-Eurasia was the __________ Empire.
The Sunni/Shia split divided the ________________ empires during the fifteenth century.
Ottoman and Safavid
The king of the Songhay Empire, Sonni Ali, combined belief in Islam with belief in ______________.
traditional West African religious practices
The "second flowering of Islam" in the fifteenth century saw the spread of Islam to ________________.
Islam in Malacca was blended with ______________ traditions.
The goal of Aztec warfare was to ___________ the enemy.
The Inca Empire encompassed almost the whole of _____________ civilization in the fifteenth century.
The official language of the Inca Empire, still spoken by millions today, was _____________.
The Inca state demanded ____________, or labor service, as tribute from its subjects.
Islam's many diverse cultures were brought together each year by the annual __________________.
pilgrimage to Mecca
The Micronesian island Yap was a center of oceanic ____________ in the fifteenth century.
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; dominated by the seminomadic Mexica, who had migrated into the
region from Northern Mexico.
Territorial state that emerged by the 15th century in the region that is now southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior king who consolidated his state through widespread conquest.
seizure of constantinople 1453
Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" in 1453, and event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
West Africa's largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that lead to the creation of a number of new states.
People whose lands were east of the Niger River in what is now southern Nigeria in West Africa; they built a complex society that rejected kingship and centralized statehood and relied on other institutions to provide social coherence.
the western hemisphere's largest imperial state in the 15th and early 16th centuries, built by a relatively small community of Quechua speaking people the empire stretched some 2,500 miles along the Andes Mountains, which run nearly the entire length of the west coast of South America and contained perhaps 10 million subjects
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the fifteenth century C.E.; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region.
ming dynasty china
Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Molngols
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa
The continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite millennia of agricultural advance
A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blooming of Italy and that includednot just a rediscovery of Greek learning, but also major developments in art, as well as growing secularism in society.
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early 16th century, noted for its efforts to convert the populace to Shia Islam.
Major Islamic state of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Great city of West Africa, noted as a center of Islamic scholarship in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries
Turkic warrior (1336-1405), also known as Tamerlane, whose efforts to restore the Mongol Empire devastated much of Persia, Russia, and India. (pron. tem-EER)
great chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405
a group of native american peoples who spoke related languages, lived in the watern great lakes region of North America and formed an alliance in the late 1500s