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Terms in this set (40)
Glaucon claims we would all act like Gyges if we could get away with it
If you were trying to convince Glaucon that his view of human nature is wrong, which one of the following would you most likely say?
We are often kind to one another
Socrates argues that he may legitimately disobey the state's commands if it acts unjustly
Which one of the following would Socrates most likely say about Martin Luther King's actions?
King's decision was unjustified since he engaged in disobedience
Discuss Socrate's argument that the state is a pseudo parent to us
Socrates argues this because the state educated us, kept us safe under their laws, and provided us with healthcare just like a parent would. This is why he thinks its important to obey the commands of the state
Suppose your uncle bought huge piles of Microsoft stock when it was extremely cheap. He then had piles of money which he used for long vacations and adding to his collection of expensive cuckoo clocks. Which statement is Aquinas most likely to make about your uncle?
Aquinas would say your uncle was unhappy since he didn't make use of his theoretical reason
Suppose someone says "happiness is just doing whatever I want!" What is Aristotle most likely to say in response to this?
Aristotle would argue that achieving happiness or excellence is by being virtuous all the time. In order to be virtuous we must know how to act and respond to situations in the correct manner at all times. This all depends on your experience growing up and a lot of people will not know what to do and wont achieve it. Aristotle would also argue that being virtuous means acting in moderation and not acting on either side of the extremes (gluttony or starvation for ex)
Aristotle agrees with Aquinas' claim that
everything has a purpose
Aquinas and Aristotle agree that the most excellent human life requires knowing God
Aquinas asserts that sin may result when the body dominates the soul
Suppose someone says "What? You have to die before you can be happy?" How would Aquinas respond to this?
Aquinas would argue that true happiness or excellence is understanding God. Humans have limited intelligence and God's is infinite. Understanding God cannot be done with humanity's limited intelligence. Therefore, true happiness/understanding God cannot be achieved in our lifetime and can only happen after we die.
Suppose you were trying to convince someone that Aquinas' conception of natural law is correct. Which of the following would you say?
Humans follow natural law in different ways
Aquinas claims that natural law applies only to rational beings.
Aristotle and Aquinas would agree on which one of the following?
Happiness consists in using theoretical reason
Kant claims relying on instincts can make us happy.
Which of the following is correct?
Hobbes believes we naturally compete with one another.
Hume claims that moral judgements rely on social standards.
If humans were necessarily guided by emotion, which one of the following would be correct?
Hume's view would be strengthened
Suppose someone says "Hobbes claims that human beings are not social creatures? Thats crazy." How would you respond to explain Hobbes' claim?
Hobbes says humans aren't social beings because all humans want power. If one person gets more power, this causes others to have less. This is why Hobbes thinks humans are in a natural state of war. Humans want to satisfy their desires but need power to do so. Others having more power causes humans to be in a constant state of competition.
Suppose a student helped an elderly ethics instructor across the street. Which of the following would be true?
Kant would say the student's action had no moral worth
Suppose someone questions Hume's argument that reason cannot move us to act. How would you explain that Hume's claim makes sense?
Hume says reason can only tell us the facts and what is true and false. That is not sufficient to move us to act. Hume says our emotions are what guide us to act. He proves this by talking about incest. If 2 sibling puppies had sex, humans would not be as morally outraged as if it were 2 human siblings. The facts in these cases are the same so Hume says this is evidence that our judgements are not based on reason.
If Hobbes' view of the human condition is false, which one of the following would not be true?
People would naturally live solitary lives
Hobbes claim human beings desire infinite power.
Hobbes and Hume believe that "good" is whatever we desire
Suppose you were trying to convince Hobbes his ideas are false. Which one of the following would you be most likely to say?
But, we often feel sympathy for one another.
Hobbes is convinced that governments come into existence only through the consent of the governed.
Suppose you encountered an alien from another planet. Which one of the following would Kant say would determine whether that being mattered morally?
Does it possess the ability to engage in theoretical reasoning?
Suppose you explain Kant's views on the role of theoretical reason in human life. After listening someone says "why would anyone think we need to use reason to find out what to do? I just do whatever U want." How would Hobbes respond to them?
Kant says the purpose of reason is to find out our duty and reason is of no help in fulfilling our desires. Hobbes says our desires just pop up and our most important desire is to stay alive. Because humans are in a natural state of war, Hobbes would say in order to stay alive you need to follow the natural laws. This includes a mutual agreement w everyone to give their power to a single monarch. He says we won't know if the monarch will abuse their power but it is much better than the alternative of all against all.
Mill claims that happiness results only from the use of theoretical reason.
Suppose someone says "pleasure is pleasure. there is no difference between them" which of the following would be true?
Mill would say some pleasures are intrinsically more valuable than others.
Mill claims it is impossible for everyone to be happy.
Suppose Mill says "how can anyone know enough about another's life to know what is genuinely good for them?" How is Sunstein likely to respond to this?
Mill's harm principle states that others shouldn't interfere in an attempt to help an individual because individuals will know whats best for them. Sunstein would say even though this is true. people still make decisions that put their health at risk because they are more optimistic and have trouble understanding statistics.
Suppose the managers of a company required its employees to join a health club. Which of the following would be true?
The company would be violating Mill's Harm Principle
Which one of the following is an implication of Rawl's position?
All human beings have the same moral nature.
Sunstein claims we are sometimes bad judges of what is best for us.
Rawls believes that civil liberties must be distributed unequally.
False. Only in certain situations where it benefits everyone (cancer surgeons)
How would Rawls respond to someone if they questioned his argument that social goods can sometimes be distributed unequally?
Rawls argues that sometimes social goods can be distributed unequally if it benefits everyone. For example, cancer surgeons receive more honor and prestige. Rawls would argue that its okay because cancer surgeons can benefit everyone. Rawls also says that in scenarios where social goods are distributed unequally, they should do so in a way that benefits the lowest people.
If there is no safe upper limit of exposure to cigarette smoke, which one of the following is true?
Auburn's policy is supported
Milton Friedman assumes that corporations cannot be moral agents.
Which one of the following is true?
Goodpaster and Matthews argue corporations can make rational decisions.
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