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103 terms

Earth Science Midterm

All of Mr. D's quizlets in ONE
STUDY
PLAY
change
occurs when the properties or characteristics of part of the environment change
density
amount of material in the volume of an object
density=(formula)
mass/volume
dynamic equilibrium
opposing forces or actions balancing out
inference
interpretation of observations
interface
boundary between areas of different properties
mass
amount of matter in an object
Natural hazard
non-human related object, process, or situation that could cause loss of life, personal injury, and/or loss of property
Observation
Perception of some aspects of the environment by one or more human senses.
Pollution
the concentration of any substance or form of energy reaches a proportion that adversely affects animals, plants, or people.
volume
how much space an object occupies
atmosphere
the layer of gases that surounds earth above the surface of liquid water and rocky material
contour lines
isolines that connect points of equal elevation
coordinate system
the system for determining the coordinates of a point
crust
the upper portion of the lithosphere
earths interior
the region extending from the rocky part of earth surface to earth center
elevation
the vertical distance of height above or below sea level
equator
the parallel on earth midway between the geographic north and south poles with a latitude of zero
field
any region of space or the environment that has come measurable value of a given quantity at every point
gradient
the rate of change from place to place within the fields (slope)
gradient formula
change in amount of field value/ change in horizontal distance
hydrosphere
the layer of liquid water that lies between the atmosphere and much of the upper layer of earths interior
isolines
the varying values of a field represented on maps to connect points of equal field values
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the equator
lithosphere
the layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell at the top of earth interior
longitude
the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian
meridian
any semi circle on earth surface conecting the north and south geographic poles
model
a way of representing the properties of an object or system
pauses
the interfaces or boundaries of the layers of earth's atmosphere
prime meridian
the meridian of zero longitude
profile
the side view of an areas landscape
topographic map (contour map)
a comonly used model of the elevation fields of the surface of earth
asteroid
a solid rocky or metallic bodty that independantly orbits the sun
celestial object
any object outside or above earths atmosphere
comet
mainly composed of solids that easily change to gases when heated
Doppler effect
shifting of wavelengths
eccentricity
the measured degree of "ovalness" in an ellipse
ellipse
shape of orbits for revolving objects
foci
fixed points at the centers of an ellipse
galaxy
a collection of billions of stars and various amounts of gas and dust held together by gravity
gravitation
attractive force between any two objects in the universe
impact crater
a depression in earth crust
impact event
the colliding of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids or any other type of celestial body
inertia
an object at rest will stay at rest; a body in motion tends to stay in motion
Jovian planets
large, gas planets, large diameter, low density, farther from sun
luminosity
how bright a star will be in relation to the sun if all star were the same distance from the observer
meteors
when meteoroids enter Earth's atmosphere
Milky Way Galaxy
our solar system is part of this galaxy, which contains over 200 billion stars
moon
a body that orbits a planet or an asteriod as those objects orbit the sun
nuclear fusion
the combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger emelments with some of the mass being converted into energy
red shift
caused by an increase in distance between the observer and the source of EM radiation
revolution
movement around the sun in an orbit, one year
rotation
planets spin around an imaginary axis, one day
solar system
the sun and all objects that orbit the sun under its gravitational infulence
star
a large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines
terrestrial planets
small rocky planets, small diameter, high density, closer to sun
the big bang theory
all matter and energy started out in a small area and after an explosion matter began to organize into subatomic particles and atoms
universe
the totality of all things that exist- all matter, time, energy and space
axis (of rotation)
imaginary line through Earth from north pole to south pole
constellation
group of stars
Coriolis effect
deflection of all moving particles of matter at earths surface to the right in the northern hemisphere proves earths rotation
eclipse
complete or partial blocking of light when one celestial body moves into the shadow of another celestial body
Foucault pendulum
proves rotation of the earth
geocentric model
theory that earth is center of universe
heliocentric model
theory that sun is center of universe
local time
time based on the rotation of the earth as reflected in the sun
phases of the moon
varying amounts of the lighted moon as seen from earth are known as the moons phases
tides
gravitation between the earth, the moon, and the sun results in a cyclic rise and fall of ocean waters on earth
time zone
15º wide bands that are an hour apart, there are 24 around earth
absolute zero
0 degrees Kelvin- no molecular movement AT ALL
absorb
waves taken into a material
condensation
gas to liquid
conduction
transfer of heat from atom to atom or molecule to molecule
convection
transfer of heat in fluids and causing density changes
crystallization
liquid changing to a solid in an ordered pattern
electromagnetic energy
type of energy radiated in transverse waves
electromagnetic spectrum
Model that shows the types of EM energy
energy
the ability to do work
evaporation / vaporization
liquid to a gas
heat energy
Infrared waves moving from source to sink
joule
unit of heat
mechanical energy
total potential + total kinetic energy
melting
changing state from solid to liquid
radiation
heat transfer through EM waves
reflect
waves bouncing off of materials
refract
bending of waves
solidification/freezing
changing from liquid to solid
specific heat
quantity of heat needed to raise the temp of 1g of a substance 1degree C
sublimation
solid to gas or gas to solid
temperature
the average kinetic energy of an object
texture
roughness or smoothness of a material or surface
wavelength
distance between two corresponding points on a wave
angle of incidence
the angle at which the insolation strikes the earths surface
deforestation
the cutting down of trees and other plants of a forest
El Nino
occurs when cold eastern Pacific water is naturally warm
global warming
an increase in average temperature
greenhouse gases
gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane present in the earths atmosphere which absorb long-wave radiation
heat budget
is the result of the balance between the total amount of energy it receives and the total energy it emits or loses
ice ages
when glaciers advance into the middle latitudes
Insolation
Incoming Solar Radiation, the suns output of electromagnetic radiation that is received by earth
Ozone
a form of oxygen gas, blocks a portion of UV
sunspot
a darker region of the suns visible surface
transpiration
a process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere as part of their life functions