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All of Mr. D's quizlets in ONE


occurs when the properties or characteristics of part of the environment change


amount of material in the volume of an object



dynamic equilibrium

opposing forces or actions balancing out


interpretation of observations


boundary between areas of different properties


amount of matter in an object

Natural hazard

non-human related object, process, or situation that could cause loss of life, personal injury, and/or loss of property


Perception of some aspects of the environment by one or more human senses.


the concentration of any substance or form of energy reaches a proportion that adversely affects animals, plants, or people.


how much space an object occupies


the layer of gases that surounds earth above the surface of liquid water and rocky material

contour lines

isolines that connect points of equal elevation

coordinate system

the system for determining the coordinates of a point


the upper portion of the lithosphere

earths interior

the region extending from the rocky part of earth surface to earth center


the vertical distance of height above or below sea level


the parallel on earth midway between the geographic north and south poles with a latitude of zero


any region of space or the environment that has come measurable value of a given quantity at every point


the rate of change from place to place within the fields (slope)

gradient formula

change in amount of field value/ change in horizontal distance


the layer of liquid water that lies between the atmosphere and much of the upper layer of earths interior


the varying values of a field represented on maps to connect points of equal field values


the angular distance north or south of the equator


the layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell at the top of earth interior


the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian


any semi circle on earth surface conecting the north and south geographic poles


a way of representing the properties of an object or system


the interfaces or boundaries of the layers of earth's atmosphere

prime meridian

the meridian of zero longitude


the side view of an areas landscape

topographic map (contour map)

a comonly used model of the elevation fields of the surface of earth


a solid rocky or metallic bodty that independantly orbits the sun

celestial object

any object outside or above earths atmosphere


mainly composed of solids that easily change to gases when heated

Doppler effect

shifting of wavelengths


the measured degree of "ovalness" in an ellipse


shape of orbits for revolving objects


fixed points at the centers of an ellipse


a collection of billions of stars and various amounts of gas and dust held together by gravity


attractive force between any two objects in the universe

impact crater

a depression in earth crust

impact event

the colliding of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids or any other type of celestial body


an object at rest will stay at rest; a body in motion tends to stay in motion

Jovian planets

large, gas planets, large diameter, low density, farther from sun


how bright a star will be in relation to the sun if all star were the same distance from the observer


when meteoroids enter Earth's atmosphere

Milky Way Galaxy

our solar system is part of this galaxy, which contains over 200 billion stars


a body that orbits a planet or an asteriod as those objects orbit the sun

nuclear fusion

the combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger emelments with some of the mass being converted into energy

red shift

caused by an increase in distance between the observer and the source of EM radiation


movement around the sun in an orbit, one year


planets spin around an imaginary axis, one day

solar system

the sun and all objects that orbit the sun under its gravitational infulence


a large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines

terrestrial planets

small rocky planets, small diameter, high density, closer to sun

the big bang theory

all matter and energy started out in a small area and after an explosion matter began to organize into subatomic particles and atoms


the totality of all things that exist- all matter, time, energy and space

axis (of rotation)

imaginary line through Earth from north pole to south pole


group of stars

Coriolis effect

deflection of all moving particles of matter at earths surface to the right in the northern hemisphere proves earths rotation


complete or partial blocking of light when one celestial body moves into the shadow of another celestial body

Foucault pendulum

proves rotation of the earth

geocentric model

theory that earth is center of universe

heliocentric model

theory that sun is center of universe

local time

time based on the rotation of the earth as reflected in the sun

phases of the moon

varying amounts of the lighted moon as seen from earth are known as the moons phases


gravitation between the earth, the moon, and the sun results in a cyclic rise and fall of ocean waters on earth

time zone

15º wide bands that are an hour apart, there are 24 around earth

absolute zero

0 degrees Kelvin- no molecular movement AT ALL


waves taken into a material


gas to liquid


transfer of heat from atom to atom or molecule to molecule


transfer of heat in fluids and causing density changes


liquid changing to a solid in an ordered pattern

electromagnetic energy

type of energy radiated in transverse waves

electromagnetic spectrum

Model that shows the types of EM energy


the ability to do work

evaporation / vaporization

liquid to a gas

heat energy

Infrared waves moving from source to sink


unit of heat

mechanical energy

total potential + total kinetic energy


changing state from solid to liquid


heat transfer through EM waves


waves bouncing off of materials


bending of waves


changing from liquid to solid

specific heat

quantity of heat needed to raise the temp of 1g of a substance 1degree C


solid to gas or gas to solid


the average kinetic energy of an object


roughness or smoothness of a material or surface


distance between two corresponding points on a wave

angle of incidence

the angle at which the insolation strikes the earths surface


the cutting down of trees and other plants of a forest

El Nino

occurs when cold eastern Pacific water is naturally warm

global warming

an increase in average temperature

greenhouse gases

gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane present in the earths atmosphere which absorb long-wave radiation

heat budget

is the result of the balance between the total amount of energy it receives and the total energy it emits or loses

ice ages

when glaciers advance into the middle latitudes


Incoming Solar Radiation, the suns output of electromagnetic radiation that is received by earth


a form of oxygen gas, blocks a portion of UV


a darker region of the suns visible surface


a process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere as part of their life functions

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