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CTA 100 Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Cybercrime
Any criminal offense that involves a computer and a network. Criminals may be employees, outside users, hackers and crackers, or organized crime members.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Computer based information system that produces standardized reports in a summarized and structured form. Generally used to support middle managers.
White-Hat
Hackers who break into systems for non-malicious reasons such as to test system security vulnerabilities.
Data Processing System
A system that records day-to-day transactions, such as customer orders, bills, inventory levels, and production output. It tracks operations and creates databases. Also known as a transaction processing system.
DoS Attack (Denial of Service)
A variant virus in which websites are overwhelmed with data and users are unable to access the website. Unlike a worm that self replicates, this attack floods a computer or network with requests for information and data.
Balance Sheet
Lists the overall financial condition of an organization.
Zombies
A computer infected by a virus, worm, or Trojan horse that allows it to be remotely controlled for malicious purposes.
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Creates a secure private connection between a remote user and an organization's internal network. Special VPN protocols create the equivalent of a dedicated line between a user's home or laptop computer and a company server.
Machine Language
Language in which data is represented in 1s and 0s. Most languages have to be translated into this for the computer to process the data. Either a compiler or an interpreter performs this translation.
Program
Instructions for the computer to follow to process data.
Beta
Testing by a select group of potential users in the final stage of testing a program.
Flowchart
Visual diagram of an algorithm. Different stages represent different actions. A curved, circular box represents the start and end of a program, a square box represents an ordinary process, a parallelogram represents input and output, and a rhombus/diamond represents conditions, a.k.a questions.
Third Generation
A programming language designed to focus on procedures and how a program will accomplish a specific task. Also known as procedural language.
If-Then-Else Structure
Logical selection structure whereby one of two paths is followed according to IF, THEN, and ELSE statements in a program.
Visual Basic
A powerful programming language used to build a wide range of Windows applications.
HTML
Programming language that creates document files used to display web pages.
XHTML
A markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile devices. Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.
Compilation
A collection of programs that are converted by software from procedural language (source code) into machine language (object code) which can then be saved and run later.
Algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Pseudocode
An outline of the logic of the program to be written. It is the steps or the summary of the program before you actually write the program for the computer. Consequently, you can see beforehand what the program is to accomplish.
Test Condition
A check to see whether the loop in an algorithm is completed.
Logical View
Focuses on the meaning and content of the data. End users and computer professionals are concerned with this view as opposed to the physical view, with which only specialized computer professionals are concerned.
Top-Down
Method used to identify top-level components of a system, then break these components down into smaller parts for analysis.
Classes
In an object oriented database, these are similar objects grouped together.
Fourth Generation
Task-Oriented language designed to solve a specific problem and requiring little special training on the part of the end user.
Source Code
Occurs when a programmer originally writes the code for a program in a particular language. This is called source code until it is translated by a compiler for the computer to execute the program. It then becomes the object code.
Uplink
In the context of wireless transmission, the connection between a client's transceiver and a carrier's antenna.
Network Operating System
Interactive software between applications and computers coordinating and directing activities between computers on a network. This operating system is located on one of the connected computer's hard disks, making that system the network server.
Node
Any device connected to a network. For example, it can be a computer, printer, or data storage device and each device has its own address on the network. Also, within hierarchical databases, fields, or records are structured in nodes.
Bluetooth
A wireless technology that allows nearby devices to communicate without the connection of cables or telephone systems.
Fiber-Optic
An Internet connection service that is not yet widely available, current providers include Google and Verizon with speeds faster than cable or DSL connections.
Network Architecture
Describes how networks are configured and how the resources are shared.
PAN (Personal Area Network)
A type of wireless network that works within a very small area- your immediate surroundings.
Microwave
Communication using high frequency radio waves that travel in straight lines through the air.
Bandwidth
Determines how much information can be transmitted at one time. It is a measurement of the communication channel's capacity. There are three types: Voice band, Medium band, and Broadband.
Packets
Before a message is sent on the Internet, it is broken down into these small parts. Each of these are then sent separately over the Internet. At the receiving end, these are reassembled into the correct order.
Twisted-Pair Cable
Cable consisting of pairs of copper wire that are twisted together.
Coaxial Cable
High-frequency transmission cable that replaces the multiple wires of telephone lines with a single solid-copper core. It is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network.
Radio Waves
Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies. Used in communications, tv, and radar.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
The standard protocol for the internet. Th essential features of this protocol involve (1) identifying sending and receiving devices and (2) reformatting information for transmission across the internet.
Star Network
Network of computers or peripheral devices linked to a central computer through which all communications pass. Control is maintained by polling. The configuration of the computers looks like a star surrounding and connected to the central computer in the middle.
Analog
Continuous signals that vary to represent different tones, pitches, and volume.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Refers to chips that have programs built into them at the factory. The user cannot change the contents of such chips. The CPU can read or retrieve the programs on the chips but cannot write or change information.
CD-RW (Compact Disc Rewritable)
A reusable, optical disc that is not permanently altered when data is recorded. Used to create and edit large multimedia presentations.
Demodulation
The process of converting from analog to digital.
Blu-Ray
A type of high-definition disc with a capacity of 25 to 50 gigabytes.
Short Message Service (SMS)
Texting or process of sending a short electronic message using a wireless network to another person.
Disk Caching
Method of improving hard-disk performance by anticipating data needs. Frequently used data is read from the hard disk into memory (cache). When needed, data is then accessed directly from memory, which has a much faster transfer rate than from the hard disk. Increases performance by as much as 30 percent.
RAD (Rapid Applications Development)
Involves the use of powerful development software and specialized teams as an alternative to the systems development life cycle approach. Time for development is shorter and quality of the completed systems development is better, although cost is greater.
Data Plan
An internet connective plan.
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
Combines with a PCI bus on the system board to support several external devices without inserting cards for each device. USB buses are used to support high speed scanners, printers, and video capturing devices.
MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)
Supports the sending of images, videos, and sound using text messaging.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
Provides high-speed connection using existing telephone lines.
Skype
A Microsoft product with which you can make voice calls, make video calls, transfer files, or send messages—including instant message and text messages—over the Internet.
Mp4
A compressed file format that can be used for audio or video; appropriate for streaming.
Mp3
A means of compressing a sound sequence into a very small file, to enable digital storage and transmission.
WMV
Uses the Windows® Media Player for video playback and is the Microsoft® file format used for streaming on the Internet.
Screen Size
A main difference between the tablet and the smartphone is the ___.
Rogue
Essentially a virus that imitates computer related technology like ISPs, websites, and wifi hotspots in order to capture personal information from unsuspecting users.
HDMI
Provides high-definition video and audio, making it possible to use a computer as a video jukebox or an HD video recorder.
Cyberbullying
The use of the Internet, a cell phone, or other device to deliver content intended to hurt or embarrass another person.
Quarantining
When an antivirus detects a virus, it places the virus in a secure area on the hard drive so that it will not spread. This is called _____.
Social Engineering
A method of deceiving users into divulging private information. It takes advantage of our natural tendency to trust one another rather than rely solely on technological means to steal information. Often associated with phishing, pharming, spam, and other Internet-based scams.
Time Bomb
A virus triggered by a certain date.
Firewall
Security hardware and software. All communications into and out of an organization pass through a special security computer, called a proxy server, to protect all systems against external threats.
Measures to Protect Computer Security
Install Firewall, Install Antivirus Software, Install Anti-Spyware Software, Use Complex and Secure Passwords,
Check on the Security Settings of the Browser.
Data Security
Protection of software and data from unauthorized tampering or damage.
Copyright
A legal concept that gives content creators the right to control use and distribution of their work.
Boot Sector
A virus that infects a computer's master boot record.
Encryption
Coding information so that only the user can read or otherwise use it.
Freedom of Information Act
Law giving citizens the right to examine data about them in federal government files, except for information restricted for national security reasons.
Ways a computer can be infected with a virus
Browsing the internet, installing any infected software, opening an email attachment, inserting or connecting an infected drive, visiting unknown links, not running the latest updates, pirating software, music, or movies, not having an antivirus software.
Top Management
Top-level managers are concerned with long-range (strategic) planning. They supervise middle management.
Polymorphic
A virus that can change its own code to avoid detection.
Virus Signature
Section of program code, such as a unique series of instructions, that can be used to identify a known malicious program, much as a fingerprint is used to identify an individual.
Portability
A property of a program that can run on more than one kind of computer.
Programming
A process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. This includes: designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs.
Coding
Translating an algorithm into a programming language.
Data Mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
What is a relationship in a database
A situation that exists between two relational database tables when one table has a foreign key that references the primary key of the other table. Relationships allow relational databases to split and store data in different tables, while linking disparate data items.
Referential Integrity
A set of rules that Access uses to ensure that the data between related tables is valid.
Data Warehouse
A huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions?
Normalization
Used to reduce data redundancy in a database.
Query
Simply a question presented in a way that Access can process.
Artificial Intelligence
A field of computer science that attempts to develop computer systems that can mimic or simulate human though processes and actions.
Primary Key
The common field by which tables in a database are related to each other. This field uniquely identifies the record. For example, in university databases, this is a Social Security number. Also known as a key field.
Data Consistency
Ensures data is kept up-to-date and the same.
Control Structures
Keywords in a programming language that redirect the flow of a program based on a decision.
Access Speed
Measures the amount of time required by the storage device to retrieve data and programs.
Switch
The center or central node for other nodes. This device coordinates the flow of data by sending messages directly between sender and receiver nodes.
Proxy Server
Computer that acts as a gateway or checkpoint in an organization's firewall.
Cracker
One who gains unauthorized access to a computer system for malicious purposes.
Trojan Horses
Program that is not a virus but is a carrier of a virus or viruses. The most common of these appear as free computer games, screen savers, or antivirus programs. Once downloaded they locate and disable existing virus protection and then deposit the virus.
Internet Scam
Using the Internet, a fraudulent act or operation designed to trick individuals into spending their time and money for little or no return.
Privacy
Computer ethics issue concerning the collection and use of data about individuals.