Terms in this set (100)
A choice one makes after considering different alternatives. -existential psychotherapy
what is the main factor that makes something a decision?
the desirability or value of a given course of action.. Example: when we buy a lottery ticket it might depend on the prize, probability of winning, length of time till prize is available, etc.
What is expected utility?
Make prudent and logical decisions that will benefit them or satisfy them with the highest self-interest in mind.
Rational choice theory assumes that a human will:
You can shift a person's preferences from A to B by introducing a third option, B', that is more similar to B than to A but clearly inferior to B. Example. Person looking at a high quality truck vs. a high quality car. Introducing a low quality car and comparing it to the Truck will push them to buy the truck.
What tends to happen when humans are presented with two options (A and B), and then with a third option (C), which is inferior to the other two, and more like one (A) than the other (B):
You avoid risk at all costs
What does it mean to be risk averse?
What do humans TEND to do when faced with the decision of pleasure now, or more pleasure later?
Operate unconsciously and simplicity, people can use it to identify a preference, but cannot exactly say why they made that choice over the others or what steps they took to arrive at their choice.
When operating under the intuitive system, people:
More lateral regions of the brain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal cortex, and supplementary and premotor areas.
Subjects in experiments involving choosing smaller, immediate rewards or larger, long-term rewards show activation in which area when choosing larger, long-term rewards?
Ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
Pursuing a reward, even when risky, is correlated with activation in the:
Medial prefrontal cortex
An individual exhibits a strong endowment effect by trying to sell their own car for much more than it is worth. Which brain region is likely active during this decision?
The price became lower
When buying an item, the medial prefrontal cortex activity goes up when:
Which brain region is associated with assigning subjective value to punishments and rewards?
When contextual factors are driving decision making, brain activation tends to be higher in the ________ area of the orbitofrontal cortex.
Which neurotransmitter is closely linked with reward?
Conation and Cognition.
Internally guided decisions are called __________, whereas externally guided decisions are called ___________.
Lateral Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
In the Coke versus Pepsi experiment, which region of the brain was activated when the participants were aware of which drink was which?
Which brain region is heavily involved in decision making when there is a threat and a quick decision must be made?
When an individual makes a moral decision based on the strategy "do no harm", this region of the brain is active:
frontopolar cortex (pg. 391)
The "goal-tracking" region of the brain during decision making is the:
dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pg. 391)
The "plan-selecting" region of the brain during decision making is the:
GABA (pg. 392)
The transmission of which neurotransmitter is especially affected by alcohol consumption?
impulsivity (pg. 393)
Lower levels of tryptophan in the body will eventually lead to increased:
internal, external?- Not for sure!! (pg. 392)
The medial area of the cortex is associated with __________ decision making, whereas the lateral area of the cortex is associated with __________ decision making.
__________ first proposed that all humans share a common set of facial expressions.
This theory states that physical reactions to a stimulus come before the emotion is cognitively experienced:
the emotion can be experienced prior to the bodily reaction?
What makes the Cannon-Bard theory a top-down theory?
In Schachter and Singer's study on physiological stimuli and situational context, if an individual is uninformed or misinformed about the effect of epinephrine, what appears to happen when the individual interacts with an angry person?
reproductive, appetitive, and agonistic functions (pg. 409)
The hypothalamus helps maintain homeostasis, including:
Which brain area regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and temperature?
cortisol? (pg. 410)
Which of the following is a hormone associated with stress?
Hunger is regulated by the:
hormones? (pg. 410)
Endocrine glands are key in the production and release of:
the emotional stimuli from the outside world (pg. 412)
The basolateral amygdala is capable of learning and tracking:
Damage (lesions) to the amygdala is correlated with impairments in which feeling?
pleasure and reward centers
Lesions on the ventral striatum may lead to the inability to feel:
Basic visceral, internal sensations are associated with the:
Generate internal stimuli
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is critical when one is trying to ____________ when there is a lack of external stimuli.
somatic marker hypothesis
The __________ states that the brain generates visceral signals, guiding decision making through internal cues and emotions.
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)
As seen in the study of veterans with brain lesions, which region of the brain seems to actually guard against depression when there are lesions present?
to overcome depression? for mood regulation? (pg. 430)
When would a doctor prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)?
What limbic structure can get damaged from elevated stress hormones?
Internal drives are associated with which brain structure?
Telling us about the internal world
Interoception is the term for:
Which brain structure is primarily involved with many behaviors and motivations, including autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses?
basolateral nuclei of the amygdala or (basolateral amygdala) (pg. 446)
Which brain structure is known for its incredibly fast response time to external stimuli?
stress in life (daily)
Allostasis is a term used for the body's response to:
Which neurotransmitter is critical to motivation, reward, and learning?
substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area
Which areas of the midbrain house the dopaminergic neurons?
Learning requires _____ of available rewards.
Which type of opioid receptor is associated with analgesia, euphoria, reward, and the addictive effects of opioids?
predictive cue (pg. 454)
If an animal is presented with an unexpected reward, there will be a sudden spike in which neurotransmitter?
If a predictive cue is repeatedly paired with a reward, such as a squirt of juice, an animal will have a spike in their dopamine levels when which event occurs?
The functional role of dopamine may change (from reward processing to simple movements) based on its:
Why is it that seemingly more, greater, or better rewards never seem to really make people happy?
What is one outcome after the brain has been flooded with too-high levels of mu-opioid?
What happens to liking and wanting with addiction?
Patients with lesions on this area are extremely successful at quitting smoking:
Dopamine levels are highest after we experience a reward rather than when we are positively anticipating the reward.
Addictive substances fool people into feeling as if they are experiencing an ideal state.
trustworthiness and dominance (pg. 477)
Studies on facial expression have found that participants judge ___________ and ______________ simply and quickly on the basis of factors such as bone structure and muscle contractions.
raised eyebrows and a closed smile? (pg. 477)
What types of facial features translate into trustworthiness?
temporal poles (pg. 478)
Semantic knowledge can be impaired by damage to which brain region?
first-order theory of mind (pg. 480)
Being able to predict what someone may think of another individual's thoughts or actions is called:
The theory-of-mind network includes the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and the _____, among other regions.
Observing, executing, and imitating others' body movements are all most closely associated with which system?
informational theory of mind
Which of the four types of theory of mind is associated with inferring another's knowledge and beliefs?
Which of the following requires reflective awareness and involves generating an appropriate emotional response that can be different from the emotion experienced by the other?
a positive or negative emotional response to another's emotion - seems to play itself out among the usual neural substrates that we see activated in nonsocial emotions
In the 2006 study by Singer et al. on empathy, participants played a cooperative game with an actor, who either played cooperatively or uncooperatively. The actor then received a painful shock. What was the outcome of this experiment?
Those with psychopathy show reduced levels of grey matter in the same brain regions as those who show antisocial personality traits, but they also have reduced levels of grey matter in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the:
became irritable and aggressive
In the case study of J.S., what happened to his temperament after his head injury?
Those with social anxiety disorder, but not healthy control subjects, show activation in this brain region when they are being criticized:
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
This brain region, active in moral dilemmas, was active when participants in the Greene and Paxton (2006) study on lying decided to lie in order to win money:
Which neurotransmitter is associated with affiliation, pair bonding, and parenting behaviors?
Which neurotransmitter promotes social dominance, aggression, and agonistic behavior?
The mirror test is used to see if an individual human or animal is:
right inferior frontal gyrus
Neuroimaging studies show that facial self-recognition and recognizing your own voice both activate the:
There are brain regions that are involved in both the theory of mind network and the mirror system.
The core deficit of Alzheimer's disease is a progressive impairment of:
By age 85, the percentage of Alzheimer's in the population reaches:
The _____ of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles determines the kind of deficit seen in Alzheimer's disease.
Based on the results from treatments that removed amyloid plaques, these plaques are better considered to be a(n) _____ of Alzheimer's disease.
Physical activity has direct effects on Alzheimer's susceptibility by affecting:
Involuntary movements, known as chorea, are symptomatic of:
Antipsychotics are a class of medications that function as:
control and movement...
Tourette syndrome shows some consistent cortical thinning in cortical regions related to:
neuroleptics (dopamine-blocking drugs)
One common class of drugs for treating severe motor tics arising from Tourette syndrome are:
dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (and nearby anterior cingulate cortex)
Two corticostriatal processing loops are often implicated in OCD, one between the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex, the other between the anterior caudate nucleus and the:
basal ganglia? (pg.531)
Individuals with brain damage to the _____ may develop symptoms of OCD.
basal ganglia loop (medial orbitofrontal cortex and the head of the caudate) also the amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex
Individuals with the "washing" subtype of OCD showed increased brain activity in the _____ when shown symptom-specific images.
anterior cingulate cortex
For severe OCD, a neurosurgeon may attempt to make small lesions in the _____, a region thought to be relevant for OCD symptoms.
________________ was a side effect of early antipsychotics, and caused permanent abnormal movements or postures of body parts.
less gray matter -- corticol thinning
Which of the following brain abnormalities is observed in those with schizophrenia?
lithium- easy sunburn
A common medication for treating bipolar disorder is:
Many of the brain areas affected in bipolar disorder are also affected in which other illness?
a deficiency of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin in the brain
What does the monoamine hypothesis say causes depression?
Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels have been found to be ________ in depressed suicide victims.
it is consistently hyperactive (pg. 549)
What has been observed about the subgenual cingulate in those with depression?
depression (negative thought patterns - ongoing negative reappraisal) (pg. 550)
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex are often overactive in patients with:
norepinephrine (from the synaptic cleft) (pg. 551)
Tricyclic antidepressants work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin and:
false -- Huntingtons Disease (Huntingtin gene)
Scientists now believe that most neurological disorders can be related to a mutation in a single gene.