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A person's behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when

external influences on behavior are minimal.

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that

actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called


Professional athletes perform better before an audience than when alone. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.

role playing

Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that

individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.

Ksana insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of

a dispositional attribution.

When offered as many servings of ice cream as they would like to eat, people are likely to eat more if they

are offered servings from a wide variety rather than a small variety of ice cream flavors.

An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept of

set point.

The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.

environments; traits

Evidence suggests that ________ may foster neurogenesis.

aerobic exercise

One possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that

they receive more social support.

Activities such as jogging or swimming are forms of

aerobic exercise.

The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our


One of the Big Five personality factors is


Lymphocytes are

white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

Humanistic theorists have been criticized for

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates

the behavior feedback phenomenon.

Social-cognitive theories are LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of

environmental influences.

With sleep deprivation, the levels of leptin ________ and the levels of ghrelin ________.

fall; rise

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called


Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with

personal control.

Accepting ourselves without undue dependence on the approval of others best illustrates

secure self-esteem.

Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates

defensive self-esteem.

For Type A individuals, exposure to stress is especially likely to inhibit organs such as the ________ from removing cholesterol and fat from the blood.


Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?

alarm reaction

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2

Researchers have identified brain areas associated with various Big Five traits. A frontal lobe area that is sensitive to reward has been found to be larger among those who are high in


Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?

instinct theory

The correlation between religious involvement and life expectancy best illustrates the

faith factor.

People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades.


If your close friend becomes obese, the odds of you likewise becoming obese increase. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on obesity.

social influence

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by


Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?

"We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

Amanda is stressed out because she thinks she's too socially inept to make friends with her new classmates. Amanda best illustrates the debilitating effects of


Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?

cognitive dissonance theory

During meditative relaxation, a part of the ________ lobe that tracks where we are in space is ________ active than usual.

parietal; less

The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.


If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of

the James-Lange theory.

The greatest number of deaths in North America today result from

heart disease.

Groupthink is fueled by a desire for


Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetically predisposed behaviors?

instinct theory

Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by

unconditional positive regard.

People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single


The level of physiological arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be

lower on tasks that are difficult.

Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates

central route persuasion.

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