Miller and Levine Biology Vocabulary Chapter 9

Calorie (9.1) 221
Basic unit of energy
Glycolysis (9.1) 221
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Cellular respiration (9.1) 222
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
NADP+ (9.1) 223
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Fermentation (9.1) 224
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Anaerobic (9.1) 224
process that does not require oxygen.
Aerobic (9.2) 226
Process that requires oxygen
Krebs cycle (9.2) 226
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Electron transport chain (9.2) 228
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.