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Study Guide for Ling 465
Terms in this set (64)
St. Augustine and the Spread of Christianity
Viking Invasions Begin Continue for 300 yrs
King Alfred defeats Danes Danelaw Established
King John Loses Normandy to France
Statute of Pleading
Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales
Caxton opens 1st English language printing press
Henry 8 forms church of England
English language Bible in every church
Jamestown first English speaking American settlement
King James Bible
Declaration of Independence
Where did Anglo Saxons come from?
Germany, Holland and Denmark
Verb length OE
What were the three letters used in Old English?
ae p o+
c=k or tf=ch
g=g or j=yes
What were three allophones in Old English?
thank, between vowels=bathe
Were all vowels pronounced in Old English?
How did vowels change in Middle English?
ae=a or e
o+= th or p
What was a major change in Middle English?
Voiced Fricatives formed minimal pairs with voiceless fricatives which signaled meaning differences by themselves
Middle English Inflections
stress on second to last syllable
What was lost in Middle English?
differences in endings=different grammatical info (gender, number, case), loss of inflection
In Middle English when are the vowels lengthened?
After ld, mb, and nd
In Middle English when are vowels shortened?
Before double consonants
Where did Middle English borrow words?
Norse, Latin and French (Norman and Central)
Old English mainly borrowed from where?
What were three reasons for borrowing in Middle English?
contact, late renaissance, and loss of inflection
Why did contact lead to borrowing in Middle English?
Invasions led to contact with other languages
Why did Late Renaissance lead to borrowing in Middle English?
Latin was used for religious words
Why did loss of inflection lead to borrowing Middle English?
loss of inflection led to easier adaptation to other languages
What did Norse borrowings look like?
egg, cast, awkward, tattered, they, their, them
what did Latin borrowings look like?
pulpit, rosary, creed
What did Norman French borrowings look like?
language of the ruling class: justice, obedience, prison
What did Central French borrowings look like?
language of the prestigous: recreation, poet, fashion
What were the seven categories of Central French?
Fashion, Architecture, Domestic, Recreation, Art, Medicine, Literature
Where did Old English Lexicon develop from?
How were new words in Old English formed?
borrowing and internal word formation process
What three categories were used to form new words in Old English?
compounding, affixation, and zero derivation
Where did Old English borrow from?
old Norse, Celtic, Latin, French
OE words still used in PDE
hand, foot, in, on, off
How was compounding used in old English?
(combining two words to form a new one) sciprap= shiprope
How was affixation used in Old English?
(adding suffixes) friend+less=friendless
What did Latin borrowings in OE look like?
draca=dragon, straet=road, monk, bishop
What did Celtic borrowings in OE look like?
What decreased between OE to ME?
Inflection decreased, syntax became more important
What subjects did inflection change in?
definite article, adjectives, nouns, pronouns= tell gender, number and case by ME
ME inflection on definite article
3 ways of creating new prepositions in ME
Conversion, Compounding, borrowing
how did conversion create new preps in ME?
taking an existing word and changing it to a prep.
ex. among from gemong
how did compounding create new preps in ME?
combining existing preps
how did borrowing create new preps in ME?
borrowing preps from other preps in other languages
ex. except=to, around
What are the 4 forms of compound verbs in ME?
Future, Perfect, Progressive, Passive
Future (Present) Compound verbs in ME
(Past) Perfect compound verbs in ME
forms of have (have, has)
(Present) Progressive compound verbs in ME
forms of be (am is are) -ing endings
(Past) Passive compound verbs in ME
be foms (was were) -ed endings
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