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Terms in this set (133)
what hormones are steroids?
•Corticoids (cortisol, aldosterone) and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
•Produced upon demand (not stored) and immediately released
•Receptors located inside cells
steroids are derived from?
Polar hormones cannot pass through ________ so it must be ____ as a drug
Nonpolar (lipophilic) hormones can _________ so it can be taken _________
enter target cells directly
orally in pill form
Hormones bind to _______ on or in target cells.
How do hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus?
•Travel to target cells attached to carrier proteins
•At the target cell, dissociate and diffuse across the plasma membrane
include steroid and thyroid hormones (polar hormones)
Receptors found within the nucleus are called?
Nuclear hormone receptors
hormones that activate genetic transcription serve as? what is the effect of these hormones?
The effect of these hormones is therefore to produce new proteins, usually enzymes that change metabolism inside the cell.
What are the 3 possible 2nd messenger systems?
how does the Adenylate Cyclase/cAMP 2nd messenger system work?
1) Binds to a β-adrenergic receptor
2) G-protein dissociates
3) Activates adenylate cyclase
4) Uses ATP to make cAMP
5) cAMP activates protein kinase
6) Protein kinase phosphorylates proteins in the target cell to alter cell metabolism
7) cAMP inactivated by phosphodiesterase
What hormone uses the Adenylate Cyclase/cAMP 2nd messenger system?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
How does the Phospholipase C 2nd messenger system work?
1) Bind to α-adrenergic receptors
2) G-protein dissociates
3) Activates phospholipase C
4) Produces IP3 and DAG
5) Liberates Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum
6) Ca2+ activates calmodulin
7) Activates protein kinases to modify enzymes
What hormone uses the phospholipase C 2nd messenger system?
-Used by epinephrine in some cells
How does Tyrosine Kinase 2nd messenger system work?
•The receptor is also the enzyme tyrosine kinase.
•The ligand-binding site is on the outside of the cell, and the enzyme faces the cytoplasm.
•The enzyme portion is activated via phosphorylation
What hormone uses the tryosine kinase 2nd messenger system?
Priming effect (up regulation) occurs when? results in?
when hormone induces more of its own receptors in target cells.
Results in greater response in target cell
Desensitization (down regulation) occurs after? results in?
After long exposure to high levels of polypeptide hormone
results in lesser response in target cell
Most peptide hormones have _________ which prevents down regulation (desensitization)
what does it mean when a hormone is antagonistic?
two hormones have the opposite effect on what is being regulated
ex) During pregnancy, progesterone inhibits uterine response to estrogen
what does it mean when a hormone is synergistic?
Synergism occurs when two or more hormones produce the same effects in a target cell and their results are amplified.
ex) Testosterone needs FSH for normal sperm production
what does it mean when a hormone is permissive?
permissiveness is a biochemical phenomenon in which the presence of one hormone is required in order for another hormone to exert its full effects on a target cell.
ex) Thyroid hormone increases the number of receptors available for epinephrine at the latter's target cell, thereby increasing epinephrine's effect on that cell. Without the thyroid hormone, epinephrine would have only a weak effect
the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are connected by?
Anterior pituitary is connected with the hypothalamus via a ________ connection
posterior pituitary is connected with the hypothalamus via a ______ connection
Posterior Pituitary stores and releases which 2 hormones produced from the hypothalamus?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vasopressin)
what does ADH do? how?
promotes H20 conservation by kidneys through the Insertion of aquaporin water channels in collecting ducts of nephrons
what does oxytocin do?
-stimulates contractions of uterus during parturition
•Also contractions of mammary gland alveoli for milk-ejection reflex
•Many more suspected roles in human behavior & physiology
•Pair-bonding (bonding hormone):
-Ethno-centric behavior (trust and empathy for in-groups)
hypothalamus makes hormones and stores it in the?
Growth hormone (GH)?
promotes growth, protein synthesis, & movement of amino acids into cells
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates thyroid to produce & secrete T4 & T3
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol, aldosterone
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates growth of ovarian follicles & sperm production
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation & secretion of testosterone in testes
stimulates milk production by mammary glands
The anterior pituitary is controlled via releasing and inhibiting hormones transported through the _______ system
hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
The final product from the ________ regulates secretion of anterior pituitary hormones
outer portion of the adrenal glands is called?
inner portion of the adrenal glands is called?
what hormones is released by the adrenal glands as a corticosteroids?
cortisol, aldosterone, and sex steroids (progesterone, androgens, estrogens)
what is Cortisol? what is its purpose?
-inhibits glucose utilization and stimulates gluconeogenesis
-derived from cholesterol
what is Aldosterone? purpose?
-stimulate kidneys to reabsorb Na+and secrete K+
-derived from cholesterol
what is Sex steroids? purpose?
Supplements production by gonads (testes and ovaries)
-derived from cholesterol
the hormone _____ is referred to as the stress hormone
what are the primary effects of cortisol (glucocorticoids?)***
(a) Metabolic effects:
-overall increase in blood glucose
-Enhances gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis from non-carbs)
-inhibits glucose utilization by tissues other than brain
-Enhances protein degradation
-Enhances lipolysis in some tissues
(b) Permissive effects
-Has permissive effects towards catecholamines
-Enhancing sympathetic nervous system
(c) Adaptation to stress
-Plays a major role in general adaptation syndrome
(d) Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive
-suppress harmful immune responses, but suppress the secretion of ACTH in pituitary. Why?***
•Physiological doses: suppress destructive power of immune system
Endocrine cells are located in ____________ of the pancreas
Islets of Longerhans
the islets of longerhans of the pancreas has which 3 cells?
alpha, beta, delta
what do the alpha cells secrete? what does it generally do?
raise blood glucose levels to an optimum when the blood glucose level is too low
antagonistic to insulin
action of glucagon
•Stimulates liver to hydrolyze glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood
•Stimulates gluconeogenesis, conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose
•Stimulates lipolysisin adipose tissue so fat is released and used as a fuel source instead of glucose
After a carbohydrate-rich meal, increased circulating glucose inhibits _______, and _________ is not released.
When glucose levels fall, the inhibition is lifted, and _______ can be released again.
Glucagon stimulates hormone-sensitive _______ in adipose tissue. What does that do?
•Converts stored triglycerides into fatty acids
•Free fatty acids are released into blood to be used for energy by skeletal muscles instead of using glucose.
In the liver, glucagon stimulates the conversion of fatty acids into ________ to be used as an energy source.
what do beta cells secrete? what does it do?
action of insulin? occurs in?
1) Insulin binds to receptors on target cells.
2) Vesicles with GLUT4 carrier proteins bind to membrane.
3) Glucose diffuses through GLUT4 channels.
-Occurs in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver.
what do delta cells secrete? what does it do?
somatostatin. it inhibits isulin and glucagon secretion
what is diabetes is resulted from?
inadequate secretion or action of insulin
what does diabetes do to your health?
Major cause of kidney failure and limb amputation;
second leading cause of blindness;
significant contributor to heart disease and stroke
Type 1 diabetes is also known as?
insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes
what causes type 1 diabetes? how do you treat it? why does it have its nick name?***
•Beta cells are destroyed (autoimmune disease) and insulin is not made.
•Injections of insulin are required for sustaining life
•not taken orally because?
•"Juvenile-onset" is not used
as much because many children
are starting to develop type II
Due to reduced ___________ secretion from type 1 diabetes, more fatty acids are also in the blood (not taken into and stored in adipose tissue). There are converted to _______ in the liver.
increase in ketone bodies may produce what health concern?
Increased _______ and _______ are secreted in the urine and act as osmotic diuretics, leading to dehydration during type 1 diabetes
what are calories?
•Energy to form ATP comes from the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins we eat or from catabolism of our body tissues.
Metabolic Rate is Measured by amount of?
heat generated or O2 consumed per minute
what is the definition of Basal metabolic rate? what is it affected by?
Basal metabolic rate is the amount of O2 consumed by a relaxed, awake person 12−14 hours after eating
•Affected by age, sex, weight, and thyroid activity
-60% caloric expenditure
Adaptive thermogenesis is the energy expended to adapt to changes in ambient temperature and digestion/absorption of food
-10% caloric expenditure
definition of essential nutrients?
raw materials which the body cannot produce on their own and therefore must be obtained through diet
what are the essential nutrients?
1) 8 amino acids
-niacin and riboflavin
-iron and zinc
-sodium and potassium
what does the hormone adipokines do?
regulate fat storage and breakdown
During obesity, enlarged adipocytes experience drastic changes in secretion rates of key hormones/signals. What are these drastic changes?
•Elevates conversion of monocytes to macrophages
•Adipocytes can be 50% macrophages!
•Obesity may be a low-grade inflammatory state
•Macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) which reduces ability of skeletal muscle to take up glucose and respond to insulin
•Adipocytes also secrete leptin and resistin which also reduce skeletal muscle sensitivity
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some cancers. The risk is greater if _______ is
accumulated rather than ___________.
Obesity in childhood is due to increasing number and size of _______
Obesity in adulthood occurs through increase in ______ alone.
When weight is lost, adipocytes get?
smaller but do not go away
what are the factors that regulate energy input
•ATP levels (?)
•Ghrelin (the hunger hormone)
•Psychological influence: habit, stress, etc.
How does fat storage regulate energy input?
-Increased fat storage in adipose tissue signals satiety
-Leptin (the safety hormone) is made from fat tissue. Acts on brain to regulate food intake
how does gastrointestinal digestion regulate energy input?
-Gut distension releases hormones to signal safety
how does Glucostatic theory regulate energy input?
A low rate, which indicates that the blood glucose level is low and is probably being replenished by glucose derived from body fat, stimulates hunger and eating behavior
How could atp levels regulate energy input?
-increase ATP signals to stop eating
how does Cholecystokinin (CCK) regulate energy input?
-a digestive tract hormone in the duodenum that stimulates fat and protein digestion
how does the Ghrelin hormone regulate energy input?
produced by stomach, hunger stimulating peptide
how does psychological influence the regulation of energy input?
habit, stress, etc
There are energetic substrates are always circulating in our blood such as Glucose, lactose, fatty acids, glycerol, ketone bodies, amino acids. these Substrates are derived from _______ and ___________.
dietary source and energy reserves
When you eat your fuel metabolism is in an _________ state. Due to input of food, energetic substrates are in _______ concentration in blood
Rate of deposition or withdrawal of substrates is controlled by which hormones? how?
-builds larger molecules
-breaks down larger molecules to smaller
-anabolic and catabolic
-anabolic and catabolic
After absorption (4 hours after eating) your fuel metabolism goes to a _______ state
The body then relies on __________ to keep circulating levels of energy substrates constant
Reproductive system in males and females originate from common tissues that develop into ______
gonads (testes and ovaries)
we all have 22 pairs of _______ chromosomes
The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the _________ of the individual
Individual has __ pairs of chromosomes, or __ chromosomes
Y chromosome induces the formation of ______
________ from testes induces formation of male sex organs
-In absence of T, female sex organs develop
1st __ days after conception, gonads of males & females are similar
Gonads have potential to become testes or ovaries until _______ causes conversion to testes
testis-determining factor (TDF)
External genitalia are same during 1st _ weeks
what are the homologous structures that differentiate with the absence of T
clitoris forms instead of penis
labia instead of scrotum
Role of 5 α-Reductase
Hypothalamus controls release of __ & ___ from anterior pituitary with _____
LH & FSH
what do LH & FSH do?
(a) stimulate production of sperm & eggs (Gametogenesis)
(b) stimulate secretion of sex steroids
(c) maintain size of gonads
Sex steroids provide _________ on hypothalamus & Anterior Pituitary
FSH & LH secretion is high for 1st 6 months of life, but falls to very low levels until ______
At puberty hypothalamus increases ______ secretion. This in turn stimulates the increase in ____ and _____
LH and FSH
The increase in LH and FSH during puberty stimulates what to secrete? What is the purpose of that?
-sex steroid secretion
-drives changes in secondary sex characteristics & menarche (1st menstrual flow)
Growth of pubic & auxiliary hair is due to androgen secretion from the _______
Spermatogenesistakes place within the ____________, the tightly coiled in each testis.
Between the tubules are clusters of ________ (interstitial cells) which produce ______
Sertolicells of STs contain receptors for ____ which stimulates _____
Leydig cells contain ______ receptors which stimulates the secretion of _____
what are the Ovaries? what is it a site for? what does it produce?
site of oocyte
what do ovaries contain?
large number of follicles that produce female gametes (eggs or ova) in ovarian cycle
__________ have _______ that wrap around the ovaries and "catch" the oocyte after ovulation
what is the most common site of fertilization
what is the site of embryonic development
the inner layer of the uterus, where embryo implants and develops is called?
The female reproductive cycle consists of what two linked cycles? what happens in those cycles?
-The ovarian cycle: produce eggsand hormones
-The uterine cycle: prepare the endometriumfor the arrival a blastocyst
The functional unit of the ovary is the ______, a primary oocyte and its surrounding ovarian cells.
An ovarian cycle is about __ days long in the human female, but it varies among individuals
what happens during the first half of each ovarian cycle?
-At least one primary oocyte matures into a secondary oocyte.
-The secondary oocyte is expelled from the ovary (ovulation).
what happens during the second half of each ovarian cycle?
-Cells in the ovary that were associated with the maturing
oocyte develop endocrine function (corpus luteum).
-They regress if the egg is NOT fertilized.
The corpus luteum functions as an endocrine gland and produces ____ and _____ for about __ weeks.
estrogen and progesterone for about 2 weeks
The corpus luteum degenerates unless a blastocyst implants in the endometrium.
what is a blastocyte?
The uterine cycle parallels the ovarian cycle and consists of a ______ and then a _______ of the ________.
build up and then a breakdown of the endometrium
About _ days into the uterine cycle, the endometrium starts to ____ in preparation for receiving a ________.
The uterus attains its maxima lstate of preparedness about __ days after ovulation (Day 19) and remains in that state for another __ days after ovulation
The ovarian and uterine cycles are controlled by _______
___ and __ stimulate ovarian tissue to grow and produce _______, which causes the maturation of accessory sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics.
FSH and LH
___________ marks the beginning of both ovarian and uterine cycles
what happens A few days before menstruation?
-Some 10-12 follicles begin to mature in the ovary and they increase estrogen production
-Pituitary increases FSH and LH
After about one week, _____ follicles matures completely.
positive and negative feedback of estrogen in the ovarian cycle
Estrogen exerts negative feedback on the pituitary early in the ovarian cycle.
During days 12-14 estrogen becomes a positive feedback signal, and causes a surge of LH and FSH.
what does The LH surge 12-14 days into the ovarian cycle cause?
the follicle to release its egg and to develop the corpus luteum.
what sex steroids secreted by the corpus luteum exert negative feedback on the pituitary, inhibiting GnRH and new follicle maturation.
estrogen and progesterone
Without fertilization, what happens to the corpus luteum?
the corpus luteum degenerates, steroids decrease, and GnRH, FSH, and LH rise for the next cycle.
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