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Psych Final

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The cells of the nervous system that do that work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the
neurons
A person living near an industrial plant that produces a foul smelling smoke will not notice it after a while because of
sensory adaptation
The heart, glands and smooth muscles are controlled by the
autonomic nervous system
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called
variables
The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called
glia
The scientific approach assumes that
events are governed by some lawful order
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is a
hypothesis
The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is
Wilhelm Wundt
A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the
endorphins
The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was
G. Stanley Hall
Perception of color hue is primarily determined by the wave amplitude of the light wave; whereas brightness is determined by the purity of the wave and saturation by the wavelength
FALSE
The limbic system is a network of structures that play a role in learning, memory, and the regulation of emotion.
TRUE
The three essential characteristics of language are that it must be
symbolic, generative, and structured
A methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem is
an algorithm
In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning. the unconditioned response (UR) was
salivation elicited by meat powder
Thorndike's work with hungry cats in a puzzle box lead him to attribute the cat's learning to a principle he called
the law of effect
In general, toddlers can
understand more words than they can say
If selectively deprived of REM sleep, a person will later experience
REM rebound
The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that
punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior
The initial stage of learning a response is called
acquisition
Sleepingwalking is MOST likely to occur
during slow-wave (stage4) sleep
The three basic processes in memory are
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they both weaken the tendency of the organism to make a response.
FALSE
The failure to recognize that you can use a tool as a weight is an example of the problem solving barrier known as an unnecessary constraint.
FALSE
Stimulus discrimination occurs when a organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus and does NOT respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
TRUE
The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that
you can affect how you feel by making a certain facial expression
In Jung's theory. emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning are called
archetypes
According to drive theorists, the foremost motivation for all organisms is to
maintain homeostasis
Abraham Maslow called the need to fulfill one's potential the need for
self-actualization.
When a person has a limited variety of food to eat, he or she will tend to eat less food than usual.
TRUE
Malow's personality theory entails both growth motives and dependency motives.
FALSE
One important aspect of diversity within a species is that it increase the probability that a species will survive.
TRUE
Stage theories of development assume that
individuals progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage
The two aspects of an individual's behavior that are central to the concept of personality are
consistency and distinctiveness
Children tend to gain control of the upper part of their bodies before the lower part. This describes the
cephalocaudal trend
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include
behavioral deficits such as flatted emotion, apathy, and poverty of speech
Carl Rogers believed that psychological disorders are cause by
inconsistency between on'es self-concept and reality
An unwanted through that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual's consciousness is called
an obsession
The psychological disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure is
major depressive disorder
the psychological disorder that involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities is
dissociative identity disorder
The anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences numerous emotional attacks characterized by overwhelming terror that occur suddenly and unexpectedly is known as
panic disorder
Hypochondriasis involves
a tendency to misinterpret minor bodily changes as being indicative of serious illness
The three general approaches to treatment of mental disorders include insight, or talk therapies, behavior therapies relying on the use of learning principles, and biomedical therapies.
TRUE
The goal of cognitive therapy is to change the client's negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
TRUE