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The cells of the nervous system that do that work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the


A person living near an industrial plant that produces a foul smelling smoke will not notice it after a while because of

sensory adaptation

The heart, glands and smooth muscles are controlled by the

autonomic nervous system

Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called


The cells that provide structural support and insulation for neurons are called


The scientific approach assumes that

events are governed by some lawful order

A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is a


The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is

Wilhelm Wundt

A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the


The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was

G. Stanley Hall

Perception of color hue is primarily determined by the wave amplitude of the light wave; whereas brightness is determined by the purity of the wave and saturation by the wavelength


The limbic system is a network of structures that play a role in learning, memory, and the regulation of emotion.


The three essential characteristics of language are that it must be

symbolic, generative, and structured

A methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem is

an algorithm

In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning. the unconditioned response (UR) was

salivation elicited by meat powder

Thorndike's work with hungry cats in a puzzle box lead him to attribute the cat's learning to a principle he called

the law of effect

In general, toddlers can

understand more words than they can say

If selectively deprived of REM sleep, a person will later experience

REM rebound

The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that

punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior

The initial stage of learning a response is called


Sleepingwalking is MOST likely to occur

during slow-wave (stage4) sleep

The three basic processes in memory are

encoding, storage, and retrieval

Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they both weaken the tendency of the organism to make a response.


The failure to recognize that you can use a tool as a weight is an example of the problem solving barrier known as an unnecessary constraint.


Stimulus discrimination occurs when a organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus and does NOT respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.


The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that

you can affect how you feel by making a certain facial expression

In Jung's theory. emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning are called


According to drive theorists, the foremost motivation for all organisms is to

maintain homeostasis

Abraham Maslow called the need to fulfill one's potential the need for


When a person has a limited variety of food to eat, he or she will tend to eat less food than usual.


Malow's personality theory entails both growth motives and dependency motives.


One important aspect of diversity within a species is that it increase the probability that a species will survive.


Stage theories of development assume that

individuals progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage

The two aspects of an individual's behavior that are central to the concept of personality are

consistency and distinctiveness

Children tend to gain control of the upper part of their bodies before the lower part. This describes the

cephalocaudal trend

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include

behavioral deficits such as flatted emotion, apathy, and poverty of speech

Carl Rogers believed that psychological disorders are cause by

inconsistency between on'es self-concept and reality

An unwanted through that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual's consciousness is called

an obsession

The psychological disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure is

major depressive disorder

the psychological disorder that involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities is

dissociative identity disorder

The anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences numerous emotional attacks characterized by overwhelming terror that occur suddenly and unexpectedly is known as

panic disorder

Hypochondriasis involves

a tendency to misinterpret minor bodily changes as being indicative of serious illness

The three general approaches to treatment of mental disorders include insight, or talk therapies, behavior therapies relying on the use of learning principles, and biomedical therapies.


The goal of cognitive therapy is to change the client's negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.


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