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BIOL 3040 - Week 13 Objectives
Terms in this set (35)
Ornamental and Fruit Trees
•Explain how and where ornamental trees might have been brought into cultivation.
Probably began in different places at different times. Dates way back in time. First recorded was from a Sumerian tablet around 3,000 B.C. (as ornamental)
-Traveled a tree to protect his garden from the wind. First recorded instance of ornamental!
Bible also mentions the Lebanon Cedar, as a source of wood. There is one reference where it mentions that a cedar twig was planted to create a new tree. (EX of ancient record of trees being brought into cultivation)
•Know why people think fruit trees were brought into cultivation before ornamental trees.
Maybe started when branches were cut for making shelters, and went into the ground. They could have grown and created a living fence. (THIS IS ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF CULTIVATION OF TREES)
Also, certain very old trees that were known to produce good crops of fruits or nuts were set aside for protection, they eventually learned to plant the nuts/seeds from the fruit and cultivate trees that way.
**Began first, because the ancestral forms of many fruit trees can't be found anymore. They have been in cultivation long enough that their ancestral forms disappeared/ very different from modern forms. You can still find the ancestral forms of most of the ornamental trees.
•Know which trees were used as religious symbols or memorials by the Chinese and Romans and what they stood for.
They often had religious significance. One example is the Bodhi Tree (Ficus religiosa), planted in India, Sri Lanka, Southern China. Planted as a memorial and legend says that Budha gained understanding under this tree after meditating for many years.
Romans dedicated certain trees to their gods; EX: Oak was dedicated to Jupiter. Olive was dedicated to Minerva.
Also Ancient China; trees were used as memorials. They would plant pines as a memorial for a king. Poplar - commoner, China Tree (Koelreuteria) we have one on USU campus. - memorial for scholars.
•What is the Bodhi tree?
Bodhi Tree definition written above.
•What do we know about the identity of the biblical tree of knowledge of good and evil?
Often thought to be an apple tree, often depicted in paintings as an apple. Although, unclear which tree is being talked about.
People have researched it: what kind of tree is it? Interesting book on plants of the bible. NOBODY KNOWS STILL. Probably NOT an apple, might have been an apricot. Remains a mystery.
•Give the main characteristics and origins of the following common ornamental trees: maple, Lombardy poplar, weeping willow, Linden, American and Siberian elm, oak, ash.
Started in many places around the world at different times. As people moved along, they brought the trees with them. Many European species were brought to the Americas. Spanish introduced the fig and olive to the New World.
maple: Loved by virtually everyone; beautiful fall colors: Yellow leaves in the fall, red colors as well. Widely planted, often disease and insect resistant. Good to grow as ornamentals. 150 species worldwide, found across the Northern Hemisphere: north america, West Coast, Eastern part of North America, many in Asia, species spread across Europe. POPULAR. SAMARA and broad leaves.
Lombardy poplar: Widely grown, found natively in Europe, Asia and North America. Quite a few species, grow rapidly and have a nice form so popular as ornamentals. Problems? Susceptible to diseases and insects. Entirely artificial- doesn't occur anywhere in nature. Created by human beings. Originated in Italy? Developed an association with sadness in all cultures.
weeping willow: Commonly grown ornamental tree; weeping willow. Hanging branches, beautiful shiny narrow leaves. Restricted natively to the Northern Hemisphere. Been used because of their long-flexible branches since ancient times to make baskets and containers. Planted as wind-breaks as well/ screens.
Linden: "basswood" handsome, hearty trees. Well in urban environments, fragrant flowers, beautiful white flowers. The "bee tree" the bees are attracted to these flowers, useful for honey production. Nice foliage, heart-shaped leaves. Drawback? Seed bracks are kind of untidy, fall to the ground and need to be cleaned up. Native to Europe and North America. Wood from Lindens is easy to work with. Used to make ropes, mats, fishing nets in ancient times. Grown as Buddhist trees.
American and Siberian elm: One of our most typical American trees; majestic. Used in some parts of country to line city streets.
oak: Majestic, more common in eastern part of United States, or along west coast. Native to Europe, US, and Asia. Recognized by acorns, and beautiful sculpted leaves with wavy margins. Produce high-quality wood that is used for furniture and flooring.
ash: European and American species. Has been cultivated for a LONG time. Popular because it is a spreading tree used for parks/ lawns. Produces tough elastic wood that is useful for us. The seeds of Ash are very distinctive; long seeds. (another type of Samara) Shiny, green compound leaves.
•Give origins of the following common ornamental trees: maple, Lombardy poplar, weeping willow, Linden, American and Siberian elm, oak, ash.
Lombardy poplar: Italy 300 years ago.
weeping willow: China, featured in early Chinese art and folklore.
Linden: Europe and North America
American and Siberian elm: American - America. Siberian - introduced from Eastern Asia.
oak: Europe, US, Asia.
•What is Dutch Elm Disease?
Invasive disease- has wiped out a lot of trees. Devastating to elms; spread by insects. Insects travel from place to place and spread it. Caused by a fungus; fungal disesase.
It causes the upper branches first to turn yellow, then they die back, eventually the entire tree will die, have to be removed. This can move slowly or quickly through the tree.
Origin? First isolated in Holland in 1920. It had spread through Europe by the 1970s, slow-spread. Made it to the US first in Ohio in 1930, then it made its way across the country. By 1980 it was found in California.
•For Dutch Elm Disease give the symptoms, the kinds of trees it attacks, which trees are resistant to it.
Kills the Elms. Has potential to kill all of them! People are working hard at controlling it.
•How do we control Dutch Elm Disease?
Origin: Probably Eastern Asia. These trees have some resistance.
People have tried to reed Dutch elm disease resistance into the American elm.
-Breeding for resistance (take germplasm from center of origin and breeding it with tree species)
-Removing disease trees (potential for spread reduced)
•Give the difference between pome fruits and stone fruits and some examples of each.
A big percentage of the North Temperate fruits are members of the rose family. Big, showy flower trees, important as ornamentals.
stone fruits: Have a pit in the center
-Almond (in rose family, Genus Prunus)
pome fruits: Do not have a pit, fleshy on the outside with a core in the center. (apple, pear)
-apple - wide area from caucasus --> China
-pear- wide area from caucasus --> China.
•Describe the main centers of origin for each of the fruit trees we covered in lecture, including citrus.
A little obscure; probably cultivated for extremely long periods. Ancestors cannot be found or are very different from the forms used today.
Ornamentals originated in widely dispersed area.
**Fruit trees originated in two major centers: central to western Asia (Levant), southeastern Asia. --> correspond to early centers of civilization.
citrus: Originated only in eastern Asia. Took awhile for them to make it to California in the 1800s. Needs a warm climate to grow.
fig: Originated only in Levant
apples, pears: Probably originated in both. Kazakhstan has very wild apple trees, 350 years old. Modern apple probably resulted from hybridization of wild species in the wide area. Native region for apples and pears extends across both of the areas.
•Explain what grafting is.
A root stock will be selected, important because it may be resistant to environmental factors/ harsh conditions. Onto the stock is grafted a scion (woody material, a bud, or branch, from a desirable variety of apple) grafted onto the roots of another tree, usually taped/ held together in some fashion. Cut made in branch, after a certain amount of time they will grow together and become one tree. (scars are apparent sometimes)
*allows us to maintain desirable varieties of apple without having to plant seed which would be too variable.
•Explain why grafting is done with fruit trees. Who was Johnny Appleseed and what did he do?
Legend: A real guy, John Chapman. He traveled around the eastern part of the United States and planted seeds of apple, gave people, sold, planted. He was responsible for spreading apple tree around the eastern part of North America.
Explain what fermentation is.
We don't know how/ when it started! Was probably by accident.
Know the chemical products of alcoholic fermentation.
The metabolism of organic compounds (usually sugar, in the absence of oxygen) - anaerobic (NO OXYGEN). There are biproducts produced when fermentation takes places.
Yeast (fungus) - Saccaromyces cerevisiae (single cells that reproduce by budding)
yeast carries out alcoholic fermentation-- Sugar (fermented in absence of oxygen to produce)---> ethyl alcohol
Give some examples of foods and drinks that are prepared using fermentation.
Know what the advantages of fermenting certain foods and beverages are.
Know what health problems are associated with alcohol consumption.
-cirrhosis of the liver
-elevated blood pressure
-depressed immune system
-increased breast cancer risk
-fetal alcohol syndrome
Define the French Paradox.
There are some health benefits for moderate consumption of wine.
French have lower rates of coronary heart disease in-spite of the fact that they have high-fat diets. They have a fairly sedentary lifestyle. Drink lots of red wine..... is this why? (1-2 drinks per day decreases coronary heart disease)
- Raises HDL levels, good cholesterol
- Decreases atherosclerosis
- Decreases risks of blood clots
Know where wine grapes originated and the history of how they spread to Europe and North America.
It has been made for a very long time! Ancient Egyptians knew how to grow grapes and make wine. The wine grape is native to Western Asia- caucasus region between Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Wine-making probably originated there too. ---> Spread to Mediterranean. , Egypt, Greece, Rome. (Dionysus Greek God of Wine, Bacchus Roman) ---> Roman Empire spread throughout Europe as they conquered other areas of Europe.
In Europe, wine-making was carried on for centuries in monasteries by monks. Brought to California in 1769 by Junipero Serra (Spanish missionary responsible for working-in and establishing several missions on California coast)
Where throughout the world are wine grapes grown nowadays?
Can occur in different parts of world; need a reasonably warm climate, good sunshine, moderate precipitation. Only a few species are good for wine-making.
West Coast in US
Eastern US a little production
Argentina and Chile
Eastern Australia & New Zealand
Minor areas in China and Japan
Know the steps in the process used to make white wine, red wine and champagne.
-fermentation (usually takes longer than red)
Champagne: sparkling wine, specialized. (Originated in 17th century by Dom Perignon)
- primary fermentation
- secondary fermentation (gives carbonation, done later on)
Describe how the process differs for making each of these alcoholic beverages.
White wine: Main difference: Pressing happens early, right after grapes are crushed and BEFORE fermentation. Skins aren't left in as it ferments. Also, pressing takes longer and is done at a lower temperature.
With regard to wine, what is an appellation and why is it important?
An appellation system established in 1935 where regulations were put into place that gave a guarantee of the wine's origin- you were guaranteed it came from a certain region and had a certain quality.
Started in France, now other countries have done it. Claim to a region is indicated on a bottle.
To give a guarantee of the quality of wine.
Know what Botrytis is and why it is of interest to wine producers.
It is a fungus that infects grapes. Different than the yeast fungus that ferments the wine, this happens to grapes still on the plant in the field. Doesn't happen every year, but every so often. Requires just the right combination of temperature and humidity. It causes the grapes to shrivel, decreases the acidity and increases sugar content. Wine produced higher sugar content, increased alcohol content, very particular and desirable flavor that people believe is due to the fungus itself.
VERY EXPENSIVE WINES produced in Bordeaux - Sauternes.
Where and how is cork produced?
Used to plug bottles!
Comes from thick bark of cork oak tree. Grows around the Mediterranean Area, North Africa, Spain and Portugal.
Most of the cork produced comes from Portugal. Thick bark is stripped from the trees, harvested and dried, then stamped/ cut out from the bark layers.
Explain how distilled spirits are made.
To get stronger alcoholic concentration, distilled spirits, distillation needs to occur. It works because alcohol vaporizes at lower temperatures than water, so apply temperature slightly lower than boiling so alcohol can be vaporized and separated from wine or beer, then it is CONCENTRATED.
Brandy made from distilling wine
Vodka made from distilling beer
Whisky made from distilling beer
Give the steps used to make beer and each of the ingredients.
From fermented grain. Originated thousands of years ago. Has been made for at least 6,000 years, probably longer. Evidence that Simerians made it, Egyptians, Inkas, Chinese.
Ingredients: Grain, hops, water, yeast is added to cause fermentation to occur. (similar to bread, but doesn't have hops, and a lot more dough and grain than liquid)
Why are hops added to beer?
added to the beer to give it a bitter flavor, this bitter flavor is desired by most people who drink beer. It also has anti-bacterial qualities, decreases probability that the beer will spoil. You add the flowers of the plant.
What is absinthe?
A drink that was popular in the 1800s in Europe and US, it was very damaging so it was banned in most places by early 1900s.
A green tart drink, HIGH alcohol content, close to 75% alcohol, had several components: oil of wormwood, herbs.
When it was consumed, it was prepared in a unique way. They would pour a shot into a glass, then use a spoon and sugar would be added on the spoon and water would be poured through it so the sugar would go down into the drink. Color of absinthe was changed. MYSTIQUE.
Describe the symptoms and problems caused by absinthism.
(Vincent Van Gogh?)
What components of absinthe are thought to cause absinthism?
Problems? Due to primary content- oil of wormwood, contains a compound called thujone
Wormwood - Artemesia absinthium
Oil of wormwood
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