Another name for the alimentary canal is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The rhythmic, wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called peristalsis
The innermost layer of the serosa is called the parietal peritoneum
The lacy apron of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs is called the lesser omentum
The chief cells produce hydrochloric acid, which activates stomach enzymes
The small intestine runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
The first portion of the small intestine is the jejunum
Bile enters the duodenum of the small intestine through the pancreatic duct
Villi are projections of the mucosa of the stomach
The ascending colon is found on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
The segment of the colon to which the appendix is attached is the cecum
The anal canal has a voluntary sphincter formed by smooth muscle only
Small pocketlike sacs within the large intestine that most often are partially contracted are called haustra.
The enamel found on teeth is heavily mineralized with calcium salts and comprises the hardest substance within the entire body.
The bicuspids are also called wisdom teeth.
Pancreatic enzymes are released into the stomach to break down all categories of digestible foods
Bile is produced by the liver but stored in the gallbladder.
Food within the lumen of the alimentary canal is considered to be outside the body
The involuntary phase of swallowing is called the buccal phase
Diverticulosis occurs when mucosa become inflamed and protrude through the wall of the small intestine.
Enzymes of the microvilli are called brush border enzymes
Absence of either bile or pancreatic juice indicates that no fat digestion or absorption is occurring. This can lead to blood-clotting problems because the liver needs vitamin K to make prothrombin
Secretin and cholecystokinin influence the release of both pancreatic juice and bile
Fats are absorbed by active transport in the small intestine.
Mass movements are slow-moving contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon three or four times each day.
Sugars and starches are classified as lipids.
Anabolism is the process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones.
Fat metabolism can result in acidosis (ketoacidosis)
Optimal health of tissues is achieved when HDL and LDL are present in equal amounts within the bloodstream.
The body's thermostat, which constantly regulates body temperature, is located within the hypothalamus.
Watery stools that result when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before sufficient water has been reabsorbed, causing dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, is called constipation.
Primary site of water absorption
Site where starch digestion begins
Tube through which food is
Site where the beginning of protein digestion occurs
Site where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal
Site of vitamin K synthesis by bacteria
Site of initiation of the defecation reflex
Glucose and glycogen
Calcium, phosphorus, potassium