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199 terms

Anthro Final

Rage
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following characteristics uniquely defines the anthropological approach?
holistic perspective
The detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork is called:
ethnography
Which of the following best describes ethnology?
cross-cultural comparative research
All of the following are approaches that linguistic anthropologists may take except:
analyzing which languages are superior
Participant observation:
is the method cultural anthropologists use to collect their data
Archaeology is the study of:
material remains to reconstruct past cultures
All of the following are important aspects of study in the Garbage Project except:
how to more efficiently pick up trash
Paleoanthropology can best be described as the study of:
human evolution
The identification of human skeletal remains to determine identification and manner of death is the primary focus of:
forensic anthropology
The preserved remains of plants and animals that have lived in the past are called:
fossils
If you cannot determine the exact age of an artifact, but you know by its deposition level that it is older than a another artifact, the dating technique used is called:
relative dating
Why do ethnographers frequently utilize key consultants?
key consultants spend time with ethnographers and provide explanations
Who first defined culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Man as a member of society."
Edward Tylor
For a culture to be successful, it must produce collective human behavior that is:
generally adaptive to the natural environment
Culture is considered to be all of the following except:
static
Gender is defined as:
cultural meanings assigned to sexually related biological differences
A group that shares ancestry, origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs is also called:
an ethnic group
A society in which two or more ethnic groups are politically organized into one territorial state is :
a pluralistic society
The most important symbolic aspect of culture is:
language
In the barrel model of culture, what are the three areas most interrelated?
infrastructure, superstructure, and social structure
All cultures are:
dynamic
What is the most essential research perspective for the anthropologist?
cultural relativism
NAtionalist ideology where people view their own cultures as the best of all possible worlds and superior to other people is an example of:
ethnocentrism
Language is characterized by:
openess, the ability to prevaricates, and arbitrariness.
Some chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have been taught:
American Sign Language
If you were sent out to decipher an unwritten language, which area of linguistics would be the most useful to you?
descriptive linguistics
The identification and description of the distinctive sounds of a language is called:
phonetics
Which of the following is not a main branch of linguistics?
archaeo linguistics
The rules or principles of phrase and sentence-making in a language are called the:
syntax
What is the greatest linguistic risk that is posed by the growing popularity of Internet?
decline in linguistic diversity
French attempts to purge their language of non-French words are an example of:
linguistic nationalism
Individuals in a society vary on how they use language based on all of the following factors except:
height
Distinct male and female patterns of speech are called:
gendered speech
Which of the following statements is true about AAVE/ebonics?
It is a highly structured and patterned form of English.
Changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language
code switching
The method for notating and analyzing body language is called:
kinesics
What do we call the cross-cultural study of human perception and use of space?
proxemics
Hall identified what four categories of proxemically relevant space?
intimate, personal-casual, social consultive, public distance
Why is speech unique to humans?
great apes do not have the anatomy to speak like humans
Which of the following was a fully developed early writing system?
Egyptian hieroglyphics
"Feral" children are anthropologically described as:
children who grew up deprived of human contact and culture
Cultures is:
socially constructed and learned
The ability to identify oneself as an individual is called:
self-awareness
One of the most important sources of self-identity throughout human cultures is:
a personal name
This anthropologist pioneered studies of cross-cultural personality and gender with her research on adolescent girls in Samoa?
Margaret Mead
In what kind of society do we normally find rather egalitarian gender roles?
hunting-gathering
Psychological anthropologists have distinguished between two general patterns of child rearing,
dependence training and independence training
Francis Hsu defines core values as:
specific values promoted by particular cultures
The term that many North American Indians prefer for a transgendered individual is:
two-spirits or berdache
Windigo psychosis is an example of an
ethnic psychosis
Which of the following IS NOT a form of food production?
food foraging/collecting
To an anthropologist, the children of your father's brother are your _____.
parallel cousins
Ongka, the Kawelke big man, sought to enhance his status by
holding a moka, where goods are given away
To say that food foraging societies are egaltarian means that __________.
the only status differences are age and sex
Subsistence based on herding animals is called ________.
pastoralism
________ are food producers who specialize in gardening with simple hand tools.
Horticulturalists
The manipulation of the supernatural is called __________.
magic
The Yanomamo are an example of a _______ society
horticultural
A(n) _________ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.
economic
Payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage is called _________.
dowry
_________ is a type of economic exchange
Balanced recirocity, redistribution, market exchange, and negative reciprocity.
When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what is expected in return, he is exemplifying __________.
generalized reciprocity
Which statement is NOT true about the Yanomamo
They are a peaceful tribe and quite timid
The Kula Ring ___________.
Is a form of balanced reciprocity in which the trading of shell arm bands and necklaces form the basis of other partnerships
The system by which goods flow into some central source, and then out again to the community is called __________.
redistribution
From and economists's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by ___________.
the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. Usually involves money.
A __________ is a part-time religious practitioner, sometimes called a witch doctor
Shaman
Something used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value is called __________.
money
People related through marriage have a(n) ________ relationship.
affinal
Marriage within a particular group of individuals is called ___________.
endogamy
Marriage to more than one woman at the same time is called __________.
polygyny
Ongka's rival, Rima, was able to disrupt the timing of the moka by:
claiming to have used witchcraft to kill a neighboring big man
A woman marries and goes to live with her husband in his village. This post marriage residence pattern is referred to as _________.
patrilocal
Serial monogamy is characterized by __________.
a man or a woman marrying or living with a series of partners in succession
Bride__________ refers to the gifts given to the bride's family in compensation for the loss of her labor.
price/wealth
Same sex marriages
provide a way of dealing with property issues in some African societies
In industrial societies, such as the United States, the most common form of residence after marriage is ___________.
neolocal
The family unit consisting of 1 or 2 parents and their children is known as the _______ family.
nuclear
A culturally sanctioned union between two or more persons that establishes certain rights and obligations between the persons, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. Legitimizes offspring and regulates inheritance.
marriage
In a(n) ___________ descent group, membership is traced through males.
patrilineal
____________ affiliates a person with close relatives through both sexes. This is the type of descent most commonly practiced in the US.
Unilateral descent
If you are a member of a matrilineal descent group, _________.
your brothers belong to the same matrilineal descent group that you do
A boy is born into a society that practices matrilineal descent. The person who excercises authority over him is _________.
His mother's brother
Which is an example of a descent group?
lineage, clan, phratry, and moiety.
If two people are given the same kinship term, this means that ________.
they occupy a similar status and are treated similarly
The blending of an indigenous religion with an introduced belief system is called.
syncretism
A society composed of several classes that differ in their access to resources and prestige is said to be
stratified
A(n) __________ is a special form of social class in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for life.
caste
Bands and tribes are both __________.
uncentralized and egalitarian
A __________ is a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single authority figure at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. Kinships important in establishing status.
chiefdom
A ritual manipulation of the supernatural designed to answer questions and reveal hidden information.
divination
A centralized political system with a bureaucracy that has the power to coerce is a:
state
How is social order maintained in bands and tribes?
gossip and fear of supernatural forces
_______ is viewed most simply as organized belief in the supernatural
Religion
This universal taboo prohibits sexual relations between closely related individuals (e.g. parent-child, siblings)
incest
A belief in an impersonal supernatural energy as depicted by Luke Skywalker telling Han Solo, "May the force be with you"-- is an example of __________.
animatism
Ceremonies such as barmitzvahs, elaborate wedding ceremonies, baby showers, and graduation parties that help individuals make major changes in their lives are referred to as rites of __________.
passage
A __________ is a deliberate effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture
revitalizations movement
Which scientist developed a taxonomic system that he published as Systema Naturae?
Carolus Linnaeus
A reproductively isolated population or group capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring:
Species
Darwin's theory states that species change on the basis of:
natural selection
Who was responsible for providing the principles of heredity?
Gregor Mendel
Alleles are:
alternate forms of a single gene
If a woman has blue eyes, this is her:
Phenotype
All of the following are evolutionary forces except:
genetic cloning
A small group of people with several colorblind individuals move from the mainland move to a previously uninhabited, secluded island. Two hundred years later a significant % of the people of the island have color-blindness. This is an example of:
founder effects
What is the evolutionary force that has kept populations from developing into separate species?
gene flow
Scientists have found that carrying sickle-cell anemia (meaning, one is heterozygous) protects the individual from:
malaria
The behavioral patterns among non-human primates interest anthropologists because they provide clues about:
the earliest development of human cultural behavior
Which of the following is the most accurate statement? Humans are considered to be part of the Primate Order because:
we share a relatively recent common ancestry
Which of the following are the least similar to humans?
lemurs
A creature that is active at night is considered to be:
nocturnal
For an arboreal primate, which sense is most important?
vision
What do we call vision that allows three-dimensional perception?
stereoscopic
What do we call the ability to grasp and manipulate objects between the thumb and other digits?
Opposability
Where are lemurs found today?
Madagascar
Which of the following represent the primate group, Prosimians?
tarsier, loris, lemur
Which group of primates is most associated with having a prehensile tail?
New World monkeys
Which of the following is the most solitary ape?
orangutan
Among chimpanzees and bonobos, grooming serves all of the following purposes except:
to beautify the animal
Which of the following is not a goal for anthropologists?
to develop a heroic narrative story of human evolution
What is continental drift?
movement of the earth's surface over time due to plate tectonics
Scientists date the split between human ancestors and the ancestors of African apes between:
8 and 5 million years ago
What is bipedalism?
a special form of locomotion on two feet
Which of the following hominids is believed to be the first toolmaker as evidenced by the current fossil record?
Homo habilis
Which of the following is not an advantage of bipedalism among humans?
an increased exposure to ultraviolet sun radiation
Which of the following countries has not yielded australopithecine fossils?
France
The Acheulian tool tradition is primarily associated with what group of early human ancestors?
Homo erectus
Which hominid was the first believed to use fire?
Homo erectus
The Mousterian tool tradition is associated primarily with:
neandertals
By what time period were humans fully modern, anatomically?
about 200,000 years ago
Which hypothesis argues that Homo sapiens originated through simultaneous transition (parallel evolution) throughout the inhabited world?
multiregional hypothesis
When did the Neolithic transition begin?
around 10,000 years ago
All of the following cultural adaptations have presented serious biological consequences since the Neolithic era except:
injury due to increased big game hunting
The Mesolithic was known in the Americas as the:
Archaic
Which of the following died out at the time of the Neolithic transition?
mammoths
Who were the Natufians?
a Mesolithic transition culture in Southwest Asia/Middle East
All of the following were associated with the Neolithic Revolution except:
increased movement away from cities
What do we call communities of gardeners working with simple hand tools and using neither irrigation nor plow?
horticultural societies
What is the clearest indicator of difference between a wild and domesticated plant?
size of edible parts
The Oasis Theory argues that:
drought created a need for people living in the Fertile Crescent to congregate in limited areas and begin collecting grass seed
Where is the Fertile Crescent?
Southwest Asia/Middle East
What two significant crops grown in the world today were first domesticated in the Americas?
potatoes and maize
Wild plant domestication:
took place in several areas across the globe, then diffused to surrounding areas
Which of the following is not an accurate statement?
the switch from food foraging to food production allowed people to work less in subsistence pursuits
The spread of ideas, customs, or practices from one culture to another is called:
diffusion
In the early farming community of Jericho, crops could be grown almost continuously because:
there was a large spring and fertile soils from a dried up Ice Age lake
Enamel hypoplasia indicates:
arrested growth caused by famine
The root word civitas for Civilizations means
urban area of dwelling (living in cities)
Irrigation teqhniques such as dikes, canals and reservoirs, were a direct result of
the presence of writing
What form of writing did the Maya use to record their rulers' accomplishments?
hieroglyphics
Refers to coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force
hard power
The hydraulic theory is an example of this kind of approach to explaining the rise of the State
ecological theory
Societies in which there is a presence of cities, social classes, and the state level of socio-political complexity are called ____.
civilizations
The world's first civilization developed in ____ about 5,000 years ago.
Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq)
The Mayan cities of Tikal and Copán were governed by ____.
a hereditary ruling dynasty
Which of the following discoveries at an archaeological site are indicators of a strong centralized authority?
The settlement was laid out in a rectangular grid pattern.
The city had a city-wide drainage system.
Many monumental buildings existed.
The storage buildings contain written records of laws and business transactions.
Which is NOT true of so-called racial groups?
racial categories are arbitrary
The Inca civilization is unusual in that ____.
they had no writing; instead, they used beaded, knotted ropes called quipu to keep records
In an archaeological excavation you come across a burial. Which of the following would indicate to you that the society in which the dead person once lived was socially stratified?
elaborate grave goods placed with the body
This enzyme enables the digestion of milk sugar (lactose)
lactase
Anthropologists emphasizing the significance of trade in the emergence of civilization note that in Mexico maize was grown throughout the region, but chilies were grown only in the highlands, cotton and beans were planted at intermediate elevations, certain animals lived in the lower valleys, and salt was found along the coast. From this they inferred that the society ____.
had a centralized government to organize trade and redistribute goods
Which of the following problems are more likely to be found in a civilization as opposed to a food foraging band?
diseases resulting from the accumulation of waste
diseases such as flu, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, and smallpox
social problems resulting from some people having more access than others to the basic resources needed to survive
conflict over scarce resources
For several hundred years, Tikal and Copán were able to sustain their ever-growing population. Then the pressure for food and land reached a critical point, and population growth was halted. At the same time, warfare with other cities was becoming increasingly destructive. All of this is marked archaeologically by which of the following?
by the advent of nutritional problems as evidenced by bones from burials
by the construction of a system of defensive ditches and embankments
by a loss of faith in the ruling dynasty
increasing violence chronicled in the hieroglyphics
As pointed out in lecture and your textbook, ____ grew out of the need to know when to plant and harvest crops or to hold religious observances and to find exact bearings on voyages.
astronomy
Utensils, figurines, and personal possessions placed in the burial chamber with the deceased are collectively called ____ by archaeologists.
grave goods
Cultures are adaptive systems ____.
that are constantly changing
A high retention of lactase is found in populations with a tradition of
dairy herding
The "thrifty genotype"
permits the efficient storage of fat for times of scarcity
In the article A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene, Jonathn Marks argues that
associating athletics and race is based on make-believe genetics and applied to naively-conceptualized groups of individuals
Athletic ability is based on all of the following except:
race
The primary function of melanin is
protecting the skin against solar radiation
In northern latitudes people have less melanin to promote the absorption of sunlight which aids in the manufacture of vitamin:
D
Which theory of state development argues that forceful leaders play a central role in the development of complex societies?
action theory
Throughout time, all large states have a tendency to:
break up/collapse
According to archaeologists, which is NOT a secondary characteristic of civilization?
astrology
In almost all parts of the world, nation-building:
results in the destruction of multi-ethnic societies
The term "modernization" ____.
refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies
The term "modernization" ____.
refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies
As modernization occurs, which of the following changes are likely to follow?
increase in literacy
decrease in the role of religion
kinship plays a less significant role
social mobility increases
Power that co-opts rather than coerces, changing behavior through attraction and persuasion:
soft power
Physical and psychological harm caused by economic systems is:
structural coercion
Which of the following is not considered one of the subprocesses of modernization?
ruralization
Disney movies that portray Western values to a global audience and influence behavior are an example of
soft power
Anthropologists are ____, meaning they take into account many interacting factors to understand the functioning of a complex whole.
holistic
_______ involves public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society, stressing mutual respect and tolerance
multiculturalism
Which of the following expresses the negative consequences of global corporations on the international and domestic scenes?
Global corporations have become so powerful that they have been able to influence government decisions so that they benefit the company rather than the people.
Movement of the Mexican rural population into Mexico City in search of jobs is an example of
internal migration
____ is violence produced by social, political, and economic structures rather than by the unique and personal decisions of individuals.
Structural violence
The demand by "developed" countries for such items as coffee, tea, chocolate, bananas, and beef has led to ____.
pushing subsistence farmers off their land to make way for huge farms and ranches that specialize in cash crops
Pollution, although a worldwide consequence of certain agricultural and industrial activities, is more of a problem in ____ because chemicals that may be banned in richer nations can be used more easily.
poor countries
Examples of external migration include
Cuban refugees seeking political asylum in the United States
Haitians fleeing to the Dominican Republic escaping earthquake devastation
Latino migrant labor in the United States
Black African Sudanese fleeing the Darfur region to Chad
The advent of bronze metallurgy created advances in:
warfare and farming
The initial motive for the development of writing in Mesopotamia was for:
record-keeping of commerce
The first emperor of which civilization was buried with 7,000 life-size terra cotta figures?
China
In the Applied Anthropology section entitled ''Tell It to the Marines: Teaching Troops about Cultural Heritage'' why do military personnel take a class focusing on the cultural heritage of the area where they will be deployed?
to educate troops on the importance of protecting the evidence of past cultures
All of the following are true about race except:
scientists disagree on the number of biological human races that exist
The 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus originally divided humans into subspecies based on:
geographic location
Because populations are genetically open:
no fixed racial groups exist