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Which of the following characteristics uniquely defines the anthropological approach?
The detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork is called:
All of the following are approaches that linguistic anthropologists may take except:
analyzing which languages are superior
All of the following are important aspects of study in the Garbage Project except:
how to more efficiently pick up trash
The identification of human skeletal remains to determine identification and manner of death is the primary focus of:
If you cannot determine the exact age of an artifact, but you know by its deposition level that it is older than a another artifact, the dating technique used is called:
Why do ethnographers frequently utilize key consultants?
key consultants spend time with ethnographers and provide explanations
Who first defined culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Man as a member of society."
For a culture to be successful, it must produce collective human behavior that is:
generally adaptive to the natural environment
A group that shares ancestry, origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs is also called:
an ethnic group
A society in which two or more ethnic groups are politically organized into one territorial state is :
a pluralistic society
In the barrel model of culture, what are the three areas most interrelated?
infrastructure, superstructure, and social structure
NAtionalist ideology where people view their own cultures as the best of all possible worlds and superior to other people is an example of:
If you were sent out to decipher an unwritten language, which area of linguistics would be the most useful to you?
What is the greatest linguistic risk that is posed by the growing popularity of Internet?
decline in linguistic diversity
French attempts to purge their language of non-French words are an example of:
Individuals in a society vary on how they use language based on all of the following factors except:
Which of the following statements is true about AAVE/ebonics?
It is a highly structured and patterned form of English.
Changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language
Hall identified what four categories of proxemically relevant space?
intimate, personal-casual, social consultive, public distance
"Feral" children are anthropologically described as:
children who grew up deprived of human contact and culture
This anthropologist pioneered studies of cross-cultural personality and gender with her research on adolescent girls in Samoa?
Psychological anthropologists have distinguished between two general patterns of child rearing,
dependence training and independence training
The term that many North American Indians prefer for a transgendered individual is:
two-spirits or berdache
Ongka, the Kawelke big man, sought to enhance his status by
holding a moka, where goods are given away
To say that food foraging societies are egaltarian means that __________.
the only status differences are age and sex
_________ is a type of economic exchange
Balanced recirocity, redistribution, market exchange, and negative reciprocity.
When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what is expected in return, he is exemplifying __________.
The Kula Ring ___________.
Is a form of balanced reciprocity in which the trading of shell arm bands and necklaces form the basis of other partnerships
The system by which goods flow into some central source, and then out again to the community is called __________.
From and economists's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by ___________.
the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. Usually involves money.
Something used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value is called __________.
Ongka's rival, Rima, was able to disrupt the timing of the moka by:
claiming to have used witchcraft to kill a neighboring big man
A woman marries and goes to live with her husband in his village. This post marriage residence pattern is referred to as _________.
Serial monogamy is characterized by __________.
a man or a woman marrying or living with a series of partners in succession
Bride__________ refers to the gifts given to the bride's family in compensation for the loss of her labor.
In industrial societies, such as the United States, the most common form of residence after marriage is ___________.
The family unit consisting of 1 or 2 parents and their children is known as the _______ family.
A culturally sanctioned union between two or more persons that establishes certain rights and obligations between the persons, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. Legitimizes offspring and regulates inheritance.
____________ affiliates a person with close relatives through both sexes. This is the type of descent most commonly practiced in the US.
If you are a member of a matrilineal descent group, _________.
your brothers belong to the same matrilineal descent group that you do
A boy is born into a society that practices matrilineal descent. The person who excercises authority over him is _________.
His mother's brother
If two people are given the same kinship term, this means that ________.
they occupy a similar status and are treated similarly
A society composed of several classes that differ in their access to resources and prestige is said to be
A(n) __________ is a special form of social class in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for life.
A __________ is a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single authority figure at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. Kinships important in establishing status.
A ritual manipulation of the supernatural designed to answer questions and reveal hidden information.
This universal taboo prohibits sexual relations between closely related individuals (e.g. parent-child, siblings)
A belief in an impersonal supernatural energy as depicted by Luke Skywalker telling Han Solo, "May the force be with you"-- is an example of __________.
Ceremonies such as barmitzvahs, elaborate wedding ceremonies, baby showers, and graduation parties that help individuals make major changes in their lives are referred to as rites of __________.
A __________ is a deliberate effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture
A reproductively isolated population or group capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring:
A small group of people with several colorblind individuals move from the mainland move to a previously uninhabited, secluded island. Two hundred years later a significant % of the people of the island have color-blindness. This is an example of:
What is the evolutionary force that has kept populations from developing into separate species?
Scientists have found that carrying sickle-cell anemia (meaning, one is heterozygous) protects the individual from:
The behavioral patterns among non-human primates interest anthropologists because they provide clues about:
the earliest development of human cultural behavior
Which of the following is the most accurate statement? Humans are considered to be part of the Primate Order because:
we share a relatively recent common ancestry
What do we call the ability to grasp and manipulate objects between the thumb and other digits?
Among chimpanzees and bonobos, grooming serves all of the following purposes except:
to beautify the animal
Which of the following is not a goal for anthropologists?
to develop a heroic narrative story of human evolution
Scientists date the split between human ancestors and the ancestors of African apes between:
8 and 5 million years ago
Which of the following hominids is believed to be the first toolmaker as evidenced by the current fossil record?
Which of the following is not an advantage of bipedalism among humans?
an increased exposure to ultraviolet sun radiation
The Acheulian tool tradition is primarily associated with what group of early human ancestors?
Which hypothesis argues that Homo sapiens originated through simultaneous transition (parallel evolution) throughout the inhabited world?
All of the following cultural adaptations have presented serious biological consequences since the Neolithic era except:
injury due to increased big game hunting
All of the following were associated with the Neolithic Revolution except:
increased movement away from cities
What do we call communities of gardeners working with simple hand tools and using neither irrigation nor plow?
What is the clearest indicator of difference between a wild and domesticated plant?
size of edible parts
The Oasis Theory argues that:
drought created a need for people living in the Fertile Crescent to congregate in limited areas and begin collecting grass seed
What two significant crops grown in the world today were first domesticated in the Americas?
potatoes and maize
Wild plant domestication:
took place in several areas across the globe, then diffused to surrounding areas
Which of the following is not an accurate statement?
the switch from food foraging to food production allowed people to work less in subsistence pursuits
In the early farming community of Jericho, crops could be grown almost continuously because:
there was a large spring and fertile soils from a dried up Ice Age lake
Irrigation teqhniques such as dikes, canals and reservoirs, were a direct result of
the presence of writing
The hydraulic theory is an example of this kind of approach to explaining the rise of the State
Societies in which there is a presence of cities, social classes, and the state level of socio-political complexity are called ____.
The world's first civilization developed in ____ about 5,000 years ago.
Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq)
Which of the following discoveries at an archaeological site are indicators of a strong centralized authority?
The settlement was laid out in a rectangular grid pattern.
The city had a city-wide drainage system.
Many monumental buildings existed.
The storage buildings contain written records of laws and business transactions.
The Inca civilization is unusual in that ____.
they had no writing; instead, they used beaded, knotted ropes called quipu to keep records
In an archaeological excavation you come across a burial. Which of the following would indicate to you that the society in which the dead person once lived was socially stratified?
elaborate grave goods placed with the body
Anthropologists emphasizing the significance of trade in the emergence of civilization note that in Mexico maize was grown throughout the region, but chilies were grown only in the highlands, cotton and beans were planted at intermediate elevations, certain animals lived in the lower valleys, and salt was found along the coast. From this they inferred that the society ____.
had a centralized government to organize trade and redistribute goods
Which of the following problems are more likely to be found in a civilization as opposed to a food foraging band?
diseases resulting from the accumulation of waste
diseases such as flu, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, and smallpox
social problems resulting from some people having more access than others to the basic resources needed to survive
conflict over scarce resources
For several hundred years, Tikal and Copán were able to sustain their ever-growing population. Then the pressure for food and land reached a critical point, and population growth was halted. At the same time, warfare with other cities was becoming increasingly destructive. All of this is marked archaeologically by which of the following?
by the advent of nutritional problems as evidenced by bones from burials
by the construction of a system of defensive ditches and embankments
by a loss of faith in the ruling dynasty
increasing violence chronicled in the hieroglyphics
As pointed out in lecture and your textbook, ____ grew out of the need to know when to plant and harvest crops or to hold religious observances and to find exact bearings on voyages.
Utensils, figurines, and personal possessions placed in the burial chamber with the deceased are collectively called ____ by archaeologists.
In the article A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene, Jonathn Marks argues that
associating athletics and race is based on make-believe genetics and applied to naively-conceptualized groups of individuals
In northern latitudes people have less melanin to promote the absorption of sunlight which aids in the manufacture of vitamin:
Which theory of state development argues that forceful leaders play a central role in the development of complex societies?
In almost all parts of the world, nation-building:
results in the destruction of multi-ethnic societies
The term "modernization" ____.
refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies
The term "modernization" ____.
refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies
As modernization occurs, which of the following changes are likely to follow?
increase in literacy
decrease in the role of religion
kinship plays a less significant role
social mobility increases
Power that co-opts rather than coerces, changing behavior through attraction and persuasion:
Disney movies that portray Western values to a global audience and influence behavior are an example of
Anthropologists are ____, meaning they take into account many interacting factors to understand the functioning of a complex whole.
_______ involves public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society, stressing mutual respect and tolerance
Which of the following expresses the negative consequences of global corporations on the international and domestic scenes?
Global corporations have become so powerful that they have been able to influence government decisions so that they benefit the company rather than the people.
Movement of the Mexican rural population into Mexico City in search of jobs is an example of
____ is violence produced by social, political, and economic structures rather than by the unique and personal decisions of individuals.
The demand by "developed" countries for such items as coffee, tea, chocolate, bananas, and beef has led to ____.
pushing subsistence farmers off their land to make way for huge farms and ranches that specialize in cash crops
Pollution, although a worldwide consequence of certain agricultural and industrial activities, is more of a problem in ____ because chemicals that may be banned in richer nations can be used more easily.
Examples of external migration include
Cuban refugees seeking political asylum in the United States
Haitians fleeing to the Dominican Republic escaping earthquake devastation
Latino migrant labor in the United States
Black African Sudanese fleeing the Darfur region to Chad
The initial motive for the development of writing in Mesopotamia was for:
record-keeping of commerce
In the Applied Anthropology section entitled ''Tell It to the Marines: Teaching Troops about Cultural Heritage'' why do military personnel take a class focusing on the cultural heritage of the area where they will be deployed?
to educate troops on the importance of protecting the evidence of past cultures
All of the following are true about race except:
scientists disagree on the number of biological human races that exist
The 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus originally divided humans into subspecies based on:
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