25 terms

Earth's Structure

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atmosphere
the thin layer of gases that form around Earth's outermost layer
Earth's compositional layers
crust, mantle, core
mantle
Earth's thickest layer made of hot solid rock that can bend
inner core
A dense, solid ball made of metal under the greatest pressure
outer core
The molten (liquid) layer of iron and nickel that scientist think creates Earth's magnetic field
crust
the thinnest layer made of solid rock which makes up the dry land and ocean floor
Continental Drift
Alfred Wegener's hypothesis that the continents where once joined in a single landmass
Pangaea
the super continent that existed millions of years ago
plate tectonics
the theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant slow motion
igneous rock
rock formed when magma and lava cools
magma
molten rock material before it reaches Earth's surface
sedimentary rock
rock that forms from pieces of sediment deposited in layers
metamorphic rock
rock that forms when heat and pressure inside Earth's crust change the materials of a rock
earthquake
when energy builds up in the rock along a fault causing the rock to slip or break
volcano
an opening in the Earth's surface through which molten material flows
fault
a break in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
rock cycle
forces deep inside Earth and at the surface produce a slow cycle that builds, destroys and changes the rocks in the crust
lava
molten rock that reaches Earth's surface
sediment
what is made when rock goes through weathering and erosioin
convergent boundary
two tectonic plates move towards each other
transform boundary
two tectonic plates slip past each other in opposite directions
divergent boundary
two tectonic plates move away from each other
seismic waves
start at the focus beneath Earth's surface where stress builds up and breaks rock
exinct volcano
a volcano that is unlikely to ever erupt again
dormant volcano
a volcano that isn't currently active that scientist expect to awaken in the future