PSYC 140 EXAM QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (77)
Jennifer has two exams on the same day. One o the exams is in her sociology class, which she finds really easy. The other exam is in her physics class, which she finds really difficult. According to research on the better-than-average effect, if you asked Jennier how she would do on the two exams she would probably say that:
She will get a better grade than the average student in the class on the sociology exam, but a worse grade than the average student on the physics exam.
When spouses are asked who does the chores in their house. research on self-serving attributions suggest that each spouse will
...believe that the contributed more to the household than they actually did
People love to invite John to parties because he is really good at mingling with different groups. He's able to fit in with all different types of people, making sure to adjust his behavior according to the group he's with at that moment. John is probably a
Which of the following is NOT one of self-motivations discussed in class?
Eric has just started working out at a gym and finds he compares himself with other people at the gym. he wants to motivate himself and be inspired so he should engage in:
upward social comparison
The DV in an experiment is the variable that is
the one being measured
After enduring a painful and humiliating series of initiation rituals, Pat was finally admitted to a social club as a member in good standing. Across town, John was also admitted to a social club, but this club was abandoned hazing as an initiation practice. According to cognitive dissonance theory, which one should be more committed to his fellow club members and why?
Pat, because of the effects of effort justification
Ran begins his 20 page soc paper about 5pm on the night before the paper is due. At around 6pm Gary requests a favor that would tkae several hours. Ryan grants the favor and ends up leaving himself just a few hours to complete the paper. Later when friends ask Ryan about his paper grade, he sas "I got a D because I was helping Gary all niht instead o writing" This scenario is a process called
A researcher finds that the number of murders committed during a summer is correlated with the number ice cream cones consumed. However, they realize that there is a third variable problem related to this finding. What could it be?
High temperatures might be causing both greater ice cream sales and more aggression acts o violence
Accordin to Festinger's social comparison theor, people often form jusdments. According to to this theory, this process is most likely to occur when:
people have no objective standard by which to judge themselves
What is one of the most important differences between correlational and experimental designs?
experiments use random assignment
Alex's neighbor, a little boy, loves practicing his saxophone loudly and annoyingly . According to the overjustification effect, if Alex wants to get him to quit playing, she should
pay him money to practice his saxophone for a few weeks and then stop paying him
Research on the contingencies of self-worth suggests that a person's self evaluations:
depend on success and failure in various life domains
Consider the following finding from a study that asked children to describe themselves: "Fourty four percent of children who were born outside of the United States mentioned this biological fact when describing themselves, where as only 7 percent of those born in the United States mentioned their place of birth." This finding best supports the idea of:
One implication of Tesser's self-evaluation maintenance model is that:
we should choose friends whom we outperform in domains relevant to our self concept but who are talented in domains that are not relevant to the self
Jim has been trying to lose weight and spend all day ignoring the entire bowl of candy bars on his coworkers desk. When Jim gets home that evening, he feels exhausted and eats an entire container of ice cream. According to te research on self-regulation, Jim is probably experiencing
According to Leary's sociometer theory:
self esteem is a reaction to which people feel included or excluded by others
A researcher finds a substantial negative correlation between a measure of anxiety and a measure of life satisfaction. How should we interpret the relationship between these two variables?
the higher a person scores on anxiety, the lower they score on life satisfaction
_________________refers to the judgment that an experimental finding can be generalized across people, time, and settings, while _________________ refers to the judgment that an independent variable caused a change in a dependent variable within an experiment.
external validity, internal validity
the induced hipocrisy paradigm is used to activate a sense of
Research suggests that people from an individualistic culture are relatively
more likely to show strong emotional reactions in front o others
Which of the following statements best summarizes terror management theory?
to protect against fears of mortality, humans try to see themselves as valuable contributors to a meaningful world
In implementation intention involves:
mental rules that link particular situational cues to goal directed behaviors
A specific concrete method of measuring or manipulating a variable is referred to as an
Which of the following study results on effects of gender is accurate?
women and men talk the same amount on average
Hariqbal is preparing an online dating profile. One of the questions is whether he is a romantic person. He thinks back to some of his most recent actions - reading a book of love poems, enjoyed a dramatic film, took a long walk by the beach - he decides he must be a romantic person. What process is he engaged in?
Which of the following is not a primary was to reduce dissonance?
reflect deeply on the inconsistency between the two cognitions
A life story in which a set of obstacles are overcome and ultimately lead to positive experiences is referred to as a ________________, while a life story in which a state of good fortune is transformed to a state of failure or tragedy is referred to as a ________________
redemption story, contamination story
Andrei has a group of friends who are atheists but his family is very religious. He tries to make sure his family and friends are not in the same place at the same time. What is Andrei trying to avoid?
multiple audience problem
Which of the following is a basic need posited by self determination theory?
In a state of flow, the individual _____________________________, while in a state of mindfulness, the individual _________________________
is absorbed in an activity, completely attentive to the present moment
reflected appraisals refer to
our beliefs about what other people believe about us
according to self discrepancy theory, the _______________ refers to our conscience, or beliefs about what we are obligated to do, while the _______________________________ refers to beliefs about what we would like to accomplish and become
ought self, ideal self
In the classic peg turning study by Festinger and Carlsmith on cognitive dissonance, under which circumstance did subjects come to believe that a boring task was interesting?
when they were paid 1 dollar to tell someone they enjoyed the task
Arvind is depressed and does not really like himself. At his new school, there are two people who seem interested in being friends with him. One, Amanda, is generally positively disposed towards him and gives him compliments. Lucas, seems to enjoy hanging out with Arvind but also is very critical of him. Research on self verification suggests that Arvid
will prefer to assosciate with Lucas
The idea that changes in facial expression elicit emotions associated with those expressions is referred to as
the facial feedback hypothesis
The fact that eggs, which were originally symbols in pagan fertility rites, are now associated with the holiday of Easter is best understood as an example of:
Walter Mischel famously showed that a child's capacity to wait for two marshmellows rather than eating one right away is predictive of
their performance on standardized tests and general functioning up to 30 years later
The EAR device is used to
record ambient sounds in a persons environment over a period o time to extract inormation about their activities and personality.
Karla receives an envelope on the mail. She instantly realizes that its from her top choice in graduate schools.Before opening it she is certain that she was not accepted. Karla is demonstrating
bracing for the worst
The _______________________ is an unconscious, intutitive, and automatic mode of thinking , while the ___________________ is a conscious, rational, and controlled mode of thinking
Wes is a Native American. If you ask him, he will tell you that he likes European Americans -- indeed many of his close friends are of European American descent. However, if Wes is alone at night, walking on the street, he is more likely to startle if a European American than if a Native American approaches him. This suggests Wes
has a positive explicit attitude and a negative implicit attitude towards European Americans
At a cognitive level, metaphors allow people to make sense of _________________________ using their knowledge of __________________________
abstract concepts, concrete concepts
Rodgrigo is watching his favorite basketball team play an important game. When it comes to the number of potential committed by his favorite team, what does research on assimilation suggest Rodrigo will likely perceive?
Rodrigo will perceive fewer potential penalties committed by the team than is actually committed
In class, Linda had to give a pro life speech on abortion. Before her speech, the teacher told everyone that Linda had been assigned to take this position, regardless of her true beliefs about abortion. Research on correspondent inference suggests that the other students will
be biased to think that Linda is truly pro life
Following his initial study, Milgram conducted several experiements on factors that might increase or decrease obedience to authority. In one of these experiments, Milgram showed that participants were LESS likely to obey the experimenters orders if
the experimenter's requests to continue were issued over a telephone
During a discussion about capital punishment, you learn that most of your friends like yourself are mildly against capital punishment. After the discussion, your attitude will probably be _____________________________ extreme, consistent with research on____________________________________
more, group polarization
Imagine that you are performing a piece at a dance recital. If the evaluation apprehension explanation of social facilitation is corect, ten the presence of a blindfolded audience should
have no effect on our performance
According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, which of the following statements is not true?
Attitudes formed through the peripheral route are more resistant to change
While at your favorite coffee shop, you want to order more coffee but have forgotten what your server looks like. You see a person dressed in black carrying a tray in her hand and, assuimg she works there, you ask her or more coffee. You have used the:
Imagine you work for a local animal shelter. Your goal is to increase the number of people who are willing to adopt a dog from the shelter. According to the ____________________________ technique, you should first ask people if they would be willing to wear a button that says adopt a dog today. A couple weeks later , ask these people to adopt dogs themselves.
foot in the door technique
Lola visits Trish in Weston, CT. At some point, Lola asks Trish whether there is a lot of crime in Weston. Although crime rarely occurs tere, Trish recalls a recent news story about a Weston drug store robbery. On the basis of memory, she then tells Lola that there is a lot of crime in Weston. This scenario illustrates reliance on
Joana does not think carefully and deliberately about what a politician says during a debate. Instead, she attends to the politicians winning smile and boyish good looks. Joana is taking the ______________________ route to persuasion
Which of the following statements about conformity is not true
people are more likely to conform when they believe that they are of higher status than the other group members
In Milgram's research in which teachers shocked learners, participants were most likely to obe commands when te experimenter was _______________________ and the victim was ________________________
You are asked to design an anti smoking pamphlet and put a frightening photogrpah of lung cancer. According to research on fear appraisals and reception yielding model, you can most increase your chances of decreasing others' smoking with your pamphlet if you also provide
suggestions for how to quit smoking
Adam and Eve worked at a fruit stand and had never been very interested in apples until their supervisor told them that they could not eat any o the apples. Then they could do nothing but think about the apple and then stole and ate one. What psychological theory explains this.
Andy agreed to type out his girlfriends term paper. After he agreed, she added that it was actually 30 pages long and that it had to be written in APA. Andy appears to be the victim of
While watching a speech by a political candidate you notice that the candidate repeatedly mentions their opponenets positions. Later while watchin the opponent's aguments you realize you are not convinced. This is the efect of
According to research on social loafing, if you are a server at a restaurant what should you do to get the biggest tip from a group of customers?
give separate checks
In the Sherif study involving the autokinetic effect, participants most likely displayed the effects of ____________________, whereas in the Asch line judging studies, participants most likely displayed the effects of ______________________
informational influence, normative inluence
Robert Baron has found that flashing lights can cause the same social facilitation efects as the presence of other people. These findings support the idea that _______________________ is the source of arousal that enhances performance on simple tasks
Imagine a group of corporate managers are experiencing groupthink. Which of the following is a symptom o this phenomenon?
reaching a consensus is valued over a careful evaluation of all the facts
Imagine you are playing a video game when five strangers arrive to watch you. According to Zajonc's work on social facilitation, the ______________ created by the presence of these strangers would impair your performance if you ______________________ this particular video game
arousal, are unfamiliar with
In his attempts to persuade Roger to get a frat tattoo, Dan assembles 100 members . Dan probably wasted time and effort doing so because...
the effect of group size on conformity levels off when the roup size reaches 3-4
you hear on the radio that the sun doesn't actually cause skin cancer. and then two months later recall the information when you are outside in the sun without sunscreen. this is an example of the
Saulo believes he performed poorly on a lit test because he failed to study the night before , he is making an
unstable/internal attribution about his behavior
Samantha wants to persuade her roommate Jane to allow her to get a pet dog. When should Jane be approached to increase chances of success?
Both a and b are correct
a. when Jane is in a good mood
b. when Jane is somewhat distracted
Ricardo and Monique are in couples therapy because they often argue w each other. On one day their therapist asks them to recall 5 times wen the provoked each other into an argument. 10 times on the next day. according to the ease of retrieval effect, what effect will this have on themselves as argumentative?
Both Ricardo and Monique will probably see themselves as more argumentative on the day that the are asked to recall 5 incidents
What does research suggest about people's ability to form impressions of others
People can form fairly accurate impressions in about 30 sec
Jackie and Megan are discussing their struggle with a difficult math class. Jackie declares shes not good at math, Megan notes she didn't study enough. Jackie exhibits___________________________ and Megan exhibits________________________________.
Why are people typically more upset i they miss an opportunity by a short amount of time vs if they miss the same opportunity by a long amount of time?
it is easier to generate counterfactuals if we miss an opportunity by a short amount of time.
When children realize their own beliefs and desires are separate from other peoples, they have developed
theory of mind
The finding that if a person gains weight, the likelihood that a friendwill also gain weight significantly increases is an example of what phenomenon
Zoltan is trying to decide where to go on his lunch break. He remembers that 3 of his coworkers- who he admires- got thai food. He will most likely go to thai food according to
a study by ross and lepper found that after reading articles that provided mixed evidence regarding capital punishment, people with initially favorable attitudes towards it found that the research supported it. This is indicative of
Social dilemma arises when people have to:
weigh their own self interest against a larger goal