306 terms

Phi final

According to James, pragmatism was meant to be a method for solving metaphysifal disputes
the word pragmatism comes from a Greek root meaning
act or consequence
Pierce argued that the only difference between the meanings of words are
how they test out in experience
according to pierce, if a word cannot be tied to any observable practical result it is
Pierce suggesred that all ________ is/are context dependent
thinking and meaning
According to Pierce, the rational meaning of any word or expression lies exclusively in its
possible bearin on conduct
James added ________ to Pierces pragmatic theory
a moral dimension
James thought of pragmatism as a
method for solving problems that interfere with feeling "at home"
James sometimes referred to the practical payoff of claims as their
cash value
According to James, true ideas are
those that we can validate and verify
James viewed his task to be one of
being an advocate for a way of life
James classified people into _______ temperamental types
________ is one of the temperamental types James identified
Tough-minded or Tender-minded
James thought that rationalists fall into the _____ temperment
James thought that skeptics fall into the _________ temperament
According to James, ______ serves ______
reason/the will
According to James, the demands of life present us with____
forced options
According to James, we accept ideas as true ____
only after we test them against our past experiences
Pragmatic truth is ____ truth
_____ is the belief that everything that happens must happen exactly the way it does
James thought that determinism is incompatible with out spiritual sense of ________
According to James, determinists have no reasonable grounds for
James was convinced that our spiritual need for freedom is incompatible with
James asserted that belief in _____ best serves our need for "moral rationality"
free will
James argues that _____ supports the belief in free will
the feeling of regret
James notes that in all cultures people turn to a god (or gods) who _______
get things done
The pragmatic paradox asserts that pragmatism works
only if we believe ideas are true according to nonpragmatic criteria
James believed that without _____, life is dull and mediocre
struggle and effort
James advocated the _____ mood
strenuous mood
According to James the essence of good is
to satisfy demand
James used the term "_____" to refer to people who see all things as good
James used the term "_____" to refer to people who see life as essentially evil
James thought that ____-minded people have a clearer view of life than _____-minded ones
morbid; healthy
A _____ is a belief that affects belief in such a way that it causes itself to come true
self-fullilling prophecy
As presented in the Melchert text, what is it to believe something, according to Pierce?
To possess a habit of acting in certain ways, given certain circumstances
With respect to Descartes' procedure of methodological doubt, Pierce says
you can't really do that
As presented in the Melchert text, the object of inquiry, according to Pierce, is
settlement of opinion
According to the Melchert text, fallibilism is the doctrine that
it is possible that even our firmest views might need revising in the future
as presented in the Melchert text, Pierce reccomends the method of science for "fixing" belief because it
attempts to improve out beliefs by testing them against something independent of ourselves
Aristotle believed that human beings are not separate from nature but are part of nature
aristotle based his ethics on how we do behave not on some higher ideal
entelechy is Greek for "soul"
Teleological thinking is a way of understanding things in terms of their ultimate goals
Aristotle identified eudaimonia with pleasure
according to aristotle, the good life is a process
Sophrosyne is scientific knowledge of happiness
According to Aristotle, virtue is "goodness in the extreme"
According to Aristotle, it is better to be err on the side of too much than too little
Aristotle believed in a natural development of the soul/self based on an inner essence or goal
Aristotle's expression of the search for the good life revolved around evaluating this life in comparison to an ideal standard and then trying to perfect this world
Aristotleian naturalism involves a denial of the existence of a separate supernatural order of reality
Naturalism deems a clear understanding of nature as necessary to any conception of human behavior
According to Aristotle, form exists within the natural order embedded in particular things and cannot exist independently
Aristotle believed that is possible to affect the body without affecting the soul and to affect the soul without affecting the body
In Aristotleian terms, happiness is the state of actualizing or realizing a thing's function
Aristotle thought of happiness in terms of ______
Human beings contain an_____ that includes the nutritive and sensitive souls
rational soul
For aristotle, ______ is tyat which all things aim
the good
In Aristotlelian terms, happiness is
the state of actualizing a thing's function
Entelechy _____
is not determined by the individual
Teleological thinking is
a way of understandint a thing in terms of its ultimate goal
Adulthood is the ____ of infancy
Eudaimonia is usually translated as
Eudaimonia implies
being fully alive as opposed to merely existing
According to aristotle, the good life
is a process
____ is the Greek word for wisdom as moderation
Aristotle charscterized moral virtue as
"hitting the mark"
By ______, Aristotle referred to the overall nature or tone of a person's habits
According to Aristotle, moral virtue comes to us as a result of ______
According to Aristotle, moral virtue requires
Aristotle characterized moral virtue as
a mean between two extremes
According to Aristotle, vice takes two forms, ____ and _____
deficiency; excess
According to Aristotle, happiness is
a by-product of living a well-balanced life
As presented in the Melchert text, soul, according to Aristotle, is
the form of a living body
As presented in the Melchert text, pleasure, for Aristotle, is
unsuitable as the principal end for rational creatures
Virgue, Aristotle says, is defined by a mean relative to us. He means that
facts about an individual and his or her circumstances are relevant to what should be done
Suppose I do something wrong, but offer an excues. Which of these excuses, if true, would be acceptable, according to Aristotle?
I was forced to do it
Aristotle defines happiness (eudaimonia) as
activity of the soul in accord with reason
The word "moral" comes from a Latin root meaning custom, manner, or conduct
Amoral and immoral mean the same thing
Kant's moral philosophy was influenced by his Pietist background
According to Kant, theoretical reason produces religious feelings based on knowledge of moral conduct
John Rawl's A Theory of Justice is an attempt to refute Kant's moral theory
Rawls uses the term "veil of ignorance" to refer to the process that should be used whenever governments modify basic human rights
The "original position" is an imaginary setting, not an actual historical setting
Susan Moller Okin criticizes Rawls for being ambiguous
Susan Moller Okin criticizes Rawls for being sexist
The moral-nonmoral distinction is descrpitive, meaning that it makes a value judgement about what we out to do
according to kant, morality is more a matter of action than of motives
kant's practical imperative suggests that all rational beings are both means and ends
the moral-nonmoral distinction is
the moral0immoral distinction is
kant distinguishes between tow functions of reason, ___, and____
theoretical reason/practical reason
____ reason is a function of reason confined to the empirical, phenomenal world, according to kant
___ reason begins with knowledge about moral conduct and produces religious feelings and intuitions, according to Kant
according to kant, the moral law
cannot be discovered in actual behavior
For Kant, goodness dpends on ___, not ____.
our will; our behavior
According to Kant, morality is a matter of
According to Kant, duty is defined as
the necessity of acting from respect for the moral law
_____ are propositions that tell us what to do under spicific, variable conditions
hypothetical imperatives
"Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become a universal law of nature" is a formulation of
the categorical imperative
By "maxim" Kant meant
the rule which is willed categorically
Kant held that ____ possess intrinsic worth
all rational creatures
According to John Rawles, the fundamental principles of justice are those principles _______
to which free and rational persons would agree
A thought experiment is _____
a way of using imagination to test a hypothesis that cannot be tested in fact
"____" is Rawl's term for an imaginary setting in which we can objectively identify fundamental principles of justice without succumbing to personal biases
Original position
The ____ is a problem-solving device that prevents us from knowing our social status and the like
veil of ignorance
Among other points, Susan Moller Okin suggests that Rawl's theory of justice pays too little attention to
the family
Okin criticizes Rawls for overlooking the effects of ____ on society
Okin asserts that Rawl's language is
According to the Melchert text, the supreme principle of morality, according to Kant, would have to be one that
has its foundation in pure reason
As presented in the Melchert text, according to Kant, a good will is one that
wills to do its duty
According to the Melchert text, the categorical imperative
forbids manipulation of others for our own purposes
Regarding freedom of the will, Kant says that
morality would not be possible without it
According to Kant, as presented in the Melchert text, I am autonomous in the realm of morality in the sense that
I am a legislator of the moral law for myself
Jeremy Bentham advocated democratic rule by the whole people rather than by a select class as a way of promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number
Bentham rejected psychological hedonism
Bentham wanted to make ethics a science
John Stuart Mill rejected unmodified, simple utilitarianism
Mill argued that all pleasures are equal
According to Mill, character and experience are major influences on what pleases us
Utilitarianism is a modern application of hedonism
Simple utilitarianism is based on the notion that
we must maximize pleasure and minimize pain
____ is the belief that we must base all decisions on considerations of pain and pleasure
psychological hedonism
_____ is the belief that it is morally wrong to avoid pleasure or choose pain
ethical hedonism
______ argued that welfare programs encouraged idleness and overpopulation
_____ described disease, famine, drought, and war as natural and historical "cures" for overpopulation
As the Enlightenment was the Age of Reason, the nineteenth century was the Age of
Bentham based his moral philosophy on the importance of
actual consequences
Bentham thought that all human activity is shaped by
pain and pleasure
One meaning of "utility" is
Bentham uses the term "utility" to mean
Which (if any) of the following is the best basic formulation of the principle of utility?
Act always to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number
Bentham named his technique for scientifically determining the proper course of action for any circumstance the ___.
hedonic calculus
Bentham referred to "units" of pleasure as
____ is the belief that all decisions are made in terms of furthering or hindering what we want or need
Psychological egoism
Bentham used ______ to show how our individual welfare is inseparable from social welfare
an egoistic hook
Bentham's utilitarianism is _____, whereas Mill's is _____
egoisticl; altruistic
Bentham thought that the only difference between two pleasures is
Kant _____
excluded animals from the kingdom of ends
A major difference between Mill and Bentham centered on whether or not _____
pleasures differ in quality
Mill argued that the only people qualified to settle disputes about the relative worth of two pleasures are those ____
who have experience of both
Mill argued that there are _____ grounds for claiming that some pleasures are superior to others
Mill said that some people choose lower pleasures because they
have weak characters and bad habits
Mill says that people lose their high aspirations if they ____
don't have the time or opportunity to indulge them
When Mill speaks of character, he refers to ________
socially conditioned habits
________ is the capacity to promote the welfare of others
According to Mill, a proper education ______
fosters social concern and good character
According to Mill, the principal cause of unhappiness is ____
According to the Melchert text, utilitarianism is a teleological ethics because
it evaluates actions in terms of their consequences
According to the Melchert text, an ethical hedonist will
count the pleasures of all as equally important
In calculating pleasures, Bentham does not consider
According to the Melchert Text, Mill differs from Bentham primarily in
believing that the quality of pleasure should be taken into account
Amoral and immoral mean the same thing
Kant tried to follow Descartes's example and write in a simple style so that his work would be widely read
Kant's philosophical work began as a response to Hume's skepticism
Kant completed the "epistemological turn."
Kant argued that science alone could restore dignity to human beings
Accoridng to Kant, reason alone cannot give us knowledge of the eternal world
According to Kant, experience alone cannot give us knowledge of the external world
Kant's philosophy is called "critical philosophy" because it attacks and criticizes other philosophers
"Phenomenal reality" is Kan'ts term for the world as we experience it
"Noumenal reality" is Kant's term for phenomenal reality when we understand it
According to Kant, the idea of self is a regulative idea
According to Kant, the idea of cause is a regulative idea
According to Kant, we know God through reason, not experience
The moral-nonmoral distintion is
the moral-immoral distinction is
The nature of the Critique of pure Reason required Kant to
coin new terms and give new meanings to old ones
Kant understood that ___ must be refuted if Englightenment faith in reason was to be justified
Kant rejected the supremacy of science over philosophy because ____
science could only uncover mechanistic laws which had no place for God, freedom, or moral dignity
Kant's critique of knowledge is
an analysis of how knowledge is possible
Kantian formalism is the theory that knowledge
is the result of the interaction between the mind and sensation
According to Kantian formalism, knowledge
is structured by categories
According to Kant, when a theory results in conclusions that are inconsistent with experience,
real-world evidence must outweigh theoretical consistency
According to Kant, scientific method
suggests that knowledge is a kind of interaction between the knower and the known
According to Kant, Hume confused_____ with knowledge that is based on experience
knowledge that is triggered by experience
__________ is an effort to assess the nature and limits of "pure reason" unadulterated by experience
critical philosophy
According to Kant, knowledge is formed by ___ and ___
actual experience; faculties of judgment
_________ is Kant's term for the world as we experience it
Phenomenal reality
Noumena are
things as they exist indpendently of us
According to Kant, transcendental ideas
bridge the gap between the phenomenal and noumenal worlds
According to Kant, regulative ideas
are a special type of transcendental ideas
There are _______ regulative ideas, according to Kant
Which (if any) of the following is a regulative idea?
According to Kant, pure reason synthesizes all of our psychological activities into a unity by positing the idea of _____
_______ triggers the regulative ideas
Kant distinguishes between two functions of reason ____ and _____
theoretical reason/practical reason
According to the Melchert text, the aim of Kant's critique of reason is
to reveal a priori conditions of knowledge
As presented in the Melchert text, Kan't simage of the dove in flight is meant to show us that
it is an illusion to think that ideas can reach beyond experience
According to the Melchert text, Kant's "Copernican revolution" in philosophy
suggests that objects do not exist independently of our minds
Synthetic a prior judgments, Kant tells us, are
a reflection of the structure of a rational mind
As presented in the Melchert text, two marks of the priori are
universality and necessity
Empiricism is the belief that ll knowledge begins with the perception of innate ideas
Empiricists believe that all knowledge can be traced back to sense data
John Locke was a firm believer in innate ideas
David Hume thought that most metaphysical speculations are irrelevant to the lives of ordinary people
Hume claimed that no metaphysical issue is ever clearly settled
according to Hume, there is no empirical evidence for the existence of cause and effect
According to Hume, no one can actually live as a skeptic
Descriptive language is devoid of all subjective, evaluative characterizations
Normative language is devoid of all subjective, evaluative characterizations
Locke's solution to irresolvable philosophical debates was to study the origins of our ideas to better understand the nature and process of acquiring knowledge
The word "skeptic" comes from a Greek root meaning _________
"to examine"
The term "empiricism" comes from a Greek root meaning ________
Although he rejected Descartes' theory of innate ideas. Locke did agree with Descartes regarding _______
the existence of substance
According to Locke, _______ qualities exist independently of any perceiver
According to Locke, ______ qualities are dependent on a perceiver
Berkeley's formula is _______
"To be is to be perceived'
Locke compared the mind at birth to a/an ________
blank sheet of white paper
When using the correspondence truth test, the procedure for checking the truth of an idea as known as ______
The difficulty of verifying the existence of anything external to my own ideas generates the _____
egocentric predicament
Both __ and ___ shied away from pursuing the ultimate logical consequences of the basic premises
Locke; Descartes
Berkely argued that _____ does not exist
the material world
The logical consequence of Berkely's epistemology is that
only particular, immediate perceptions can be known to exist
Hume thought that ________
no metaphysical dispute was every clearly and thoruoghly settled
Hume distinguished between ______ and _____ on the basis of intensity
ideas; impressions
According to Hume, all ideas can be traced to
The empirical criterion of meaning holds that ________
all meaningful ideas can be traced back to sense experience
Hume presented the ______ theory of the self
According to Hume, strictly speaking, identity ________
is not a property of things
______ is the reasoning pattern that moves from the particular to the general
inductive reasoning
In Hume's time, cause and effect were defined in terms of ______
necessary connection
According to Hume, there is ______ evidence for the existence of cause and effect
no emirical
What conclusion does Hume draw regarding the origin of the universe?
There is no data for drawing any conclusion
Hume argued that even though there is no certainty in life, _____
we are psychologically compelled to live as if there is
According to Hume, _____
reason's role is secondary to the role of moral sentiment
Hume held the belief that ____
facts themselves are valueless
As presented in the Melchert text, according to Hobbes, human life
doesn't differ in principle from the operations of a watch
The will, for Hobbes, is
the desire that wins out in a competition to cause action
In a state of nature, Hobbes holds
people seek to maximize their pleasure and power
Hobbes says that it is a law of nature to "seek peace" because
that is the best way to satisfy our individual desires
Hobbes thinks that a sovereign power
is required to compel men to keep their agreements
Innate ideas are truths that are not derived from observation or experiment
Descartes cautioned against relying too much on authoritarian thinking
Descartes placed much weight on common sense
Descartes rejected sense knowledge as a sufficient foundation for certainty
Descartes argued that the idea of God is acquired from experience
Descartes was the first philosopher to study the process of thinking itself
Descartes believed that we are born with certain ideas implanted in us by God
According to Descartes, if we can clearly and distinctly grasp the idea of God, then we may understand the existence of God
Descartes made a radical proposal: ______
Throw out everything we know, and build a system of knowledge based on careful application of a rational method
According to Descartes, _____ are truths that are not derived from oberservation or experiment
innate ideas
The ____ theory of truth is the truth test in which new or unclear ideas are evaluated in terms of rational consistency and in relation to already established truths
Descartes held that true ideas are ____ and _____
clear; distinct
Descartes thought that _____ is essential for finding the truth
Descartes attacked earlier philosophy on the grounds that it ________
did not demand rational comprehension from the individual intellect
In order to reach his target audience, Descartes wrote in _____
everyday French
_____ is the name of the Cartesian strategy of deliberately doubting everything it is possible to doubt in the least degree and accepting as true only what can be known with absolute certainty
Methodic Doubt
Descartes's standard of truth rests on
his insistence that all ideas recognizes clearly and distinctly are true
"All triangles have 180 degrees" is an example of _____ knowledge
a priori
"My shirt is white" is an example of ______ knowledge
a posteriori
Descartes begins his Meditations by seeing if it is possible to _______
doubt everything
In the Meditations, Descartes rejects the reliability of sense knowledge by pointing out that ____
this whole world might be a dream
Descartes introduces ____ as a device to raise the possibility of ultimate delusion.
the evil genius
Cogito, ergo sum is Latin for
"I think, therefore I am"
Descartes discovers one absolutely undoubtable truth:
I think, therefore I exist
Descartes though that the idea of _____ is qualitatively unique.
A/an ______ argument attempts to prove God's existence by referring to the meaning of the word "God" when it is clearly understood
Descartes argued that only the existence of God could account for his having the idea of _____.
____ is the belief that everything is composed of matter and energy and can be explained by physical laws.
According to the ____, the body is a fleshy machine
____ is the term for any philosophical position that divides existence into two distinct substances
Gilbert Ryle refers to _____ as the "official doctrine"
Descartes characterizes the mind and body
as a whole
The modern era is grounded in Cartesian _____
Cartesian dualism generates the ____ problem
Descartes claimed that even an evil genius could not create the idea of ____
According to the Melchert text, among the rules of Descartes' method is the following
Make comprehensive reviews
As presented in the Melchert text, as a result of his doubting, Descartes concludes that he is
a thinking thing
As presented in Melchert, according to Descartes, innate ideas are
ideas I would have even if nothing but I existed
As presented in the Melchert text, Descartes thinks it is important to prove the existence of God because
otherwise you couldn't be sure of anything but your own existence
Aristotle agreed with his teacher Plato on all major philosophical matters
When Plato died, Aristotle was appointed head of the Academy
Aristotle's school contained the first important library in the West
Aristotle was accused of one of the same charges leveled against Socrates- not respecting the gods of the state
Aristotle believed that human beings are not separate from nature, but are part of nature
Aristotle believed in two levels of reality, the natural and the supernatural
Aristotle based his ethics on how we do behave, not on some "higher" ideal
Entelechy is Greek for "soul"
According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the sensitive or sentient soul
Aristotle believed that the sensitive soul has the potential for deliberation
What we know today as the writings of Aristotle _____
are a collection of notes
Aristotle founded the ____
So great was Aristotle's influence on later thinkers that for centuries educated persons knew him simply as _____
the Philosopher
Aristotle believed in ____ level(s) of reality
Aristotle is the first Western thinker of record to provide an adequate analysis of the ____ of change
Aristotle argued that ____
form can be distinguished from content only in thought
According to Aristotle, ____ answers the question "What is that?"
According to Aristotle, _____ answers the question "What is this"
According to Aristotle, ____ is that which makes a thing what it is
According to Aristotle, ___ has no distinct characteristics until its entelechy is actualized
Aristotle characterized nature as ____
"formed matter"
According to Aristotle, a complete understanding of anything can only come from identifying its four causes. The four causes are ____
material, formal, efficient, final
According to Aristotle, the "triggering" action that begins a thing is known as its ____ cause
According to Aristotle, the ultimate goal or purpose for which a thing exists is known as its ____ cause
Naturalism is the belief that ____
reality consists of the natural world
Entelechy is Greek for
having its end within itself
For Aristotle, soul is
the form of the body
According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul it the ____ soul
Aristotle thought of happiness in terms of ----
The ___ soul registers information regarding the form of things, but not does absorb or become those things
Human beings contain a ____ that includes the nutritive and sensitive soul
rational soul
For aristotle, _____ is that at which all things aim
the good
In Aristotelian terms, hapiness is ____
the state of actualizing a thing's function
entelechy _____
is determined by the individual