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According to James, pragmatism was meant to be a method for solving metaphysifal disputes


the word pragmatism comes from a Greek root meaning

act or consequence

Pierce argued that the only difference between the meanings of words are

how they test out in experience

according to pierce, if a word cannot be tied to any observable practical result it is


Pierce suggesred that all ________ is/are context dependent

thinking and meaning

According to Pierce, the rational meaning of any word or expression lies exclusively in its

possible bearin on conduct

James added ________ to Pierces pragmatic theory

a moral dimension

James thought of pragmatism as a

method for solving problems that interfere with feeling "at home"

James sometimes referred to the practical payoff of claims as their

cash value

According to James, true ideas are

those that we can validate and verify

James viewed his task to be one of

being an advocate for a way of life

James classified people into _______ temperamental types


________ is one of the temperamental types James identified

Tough-minded or Tender-minded

James thought that rationalists fall into the _____ temperment


James thought that skeptics fall into the _________ temperament


According to James, ______ serves ______

reason/the will

According to James, the demands of life present us with____

forced options

According to James, we accept ideas as true ____

only after we test them against our past experiences

Pragmatic truth is ____ truth


_____ is the belief that everything that happens must happen exactly the way it does


James thought that determinism is incompatible with out spiritual sense of ________


According to James, determinists have no reasonable grounds for


James was convinced that our spiritual need for freedom is incompatible with


James asserted that belief in _____ best serves our need for "moral rationality"

free will

James argues that _____ supports the belief in free will

the feeling of regret

James notes that in all cultures people turn to a god (or gods) who _______

get things done

The pragmatic paradox asserts that pragmatism works

only if we believe ideas are true according to nonpragmatic criteria

James believed that without _____, life is dull and mediocre

struggle and effort

James advocated the _____ mood

strenuous mood

According to James the essence of good is

to satisfy demand

James used the term "_____" to refer to people who see all things as good


James used the term "_____" to refer to people who see life as essentially evil


James thought that ____-minded people have a clearer view of life than _____-minded ones

morbid; healthy

A _____ is a belief that affects belief in such a way that it causes itself to come true

self-fullilling prophecy

As presented in the Melchert text, what is it to believe something, according to Pierce?

To possess a habit of acting in certain ways, given certain circumstances

With respect to Descartes' procedure of methodological doubt, Pierce says

you can't really do that

As presented in the Melchert text, the object of inquiry, according to Pierce, is

settlement of opinion

According to the Melchert text, fallibilism is the doctrine that

it is possible that even our firmest views might need revising in the future

as presented in the Melchert text, Pierce reccomends the method of science for "fixing" belief because it

attempts to improve out beliefs by testing them against something independent of ourselves

Aristotle believed that human beings are not separate from nature but are part of nature


aristotle based his ethics on how we do behave not on some higher ideal


entelechy is Greek for "soul"


Teleological thinking is a way of understanding things in terms of their ultimate goals


Aristotle identified eudaimonia with pleasure


according to aristotle, the good life is a process


Sophrosyne is scientific knowledge of happiness


According to Aristotle, virtue is "goodness in the extreme"


According to Aristotle, it is better to be err on the side of too much than too little


Aristotle believed in a natural development of the soul/self based on an inner essence or goal


Aristotle's expression of the search for the good life revolved around evaluating this life in comparison to an ideal standard and then trying to perfect this world


Aristotleian naturalism involves a denial of the existence of a separate supernatural order of reality


Naturalism deems a clear understanding of nature as necessary to any conception of human behavior


According to Aristotle, form exists within the natural order embedded in particular things and cannot exist independently


Aristotle believed that is possible to affect the body without affecting the soul and to affect the soul without affecting the body


In Aristotleian terms, happiness is the state of actualizing or realizing a thing's function


Aristotle thought of happiness in terms of ______


Human beings contain an_____ that includes the nutritive and sensitive souls

rational soul

For aristotle, ______ is tyat which all things aim

the good

In Aristotlelian terms, happiness is

the state of actualizing a thing's function

Entelechy _____

is not determined by the individual

Teleological thinking is

a way of understandint a thing in terms of its ultimate goal

Adulthood is the ____ of infancy


Eudaimonia is usually translated as


Eudaimonia implies

being fully alive as opposed to merely existing

According to aristotle, the good life

is a process

____ is the Greek word for wisdom as moderation


Aristotle charscterized moral virtue as

"hitting the mark"

By ______, Aristotle referred to the overall nature or tone of a person's habits


According to Aristotle, moral virtue comes to us as a result of ______


According to Aristotle, moral virtue requires


Aristotle characterized moral virtue as

a mean between two extremes

According to Aristotle, vice takes two forms, ____ and _____

deficiency; excess

According to Aristotle, happiness is

a by-product of living a well-balanced life

As presented in the Melchert text, soul, according to Aristotle, is

the form of a living body

As presented in the Melchert text, pleasure, for Aristotle, is

unsuitable as the principal end for rational creatures

Virgue, Aristotle says, is defined by a mean relative to us. He means that

facts about an individual and his or her circumstances are relevant to what should be done

Suppose I do something wrong, but offer an excues. Which of these excuses, if true, would be acceptable, according to Aristotle?

I was forced to do it

Aristotle defines happiness (eudaimonia) as

activity of the soul in accord with reason

The word "moral" comes from a Latin root meaning custom, manner, or conduct


Amoral and immoral mean the same thing


Kant's moral philosophy was influenced by his Pietist background


According to Kant, theoretical reason produces religious feelings based on knowledge of moral conduct


John Rawl's A Theory of Justice is an attempt to refute Kant's moral theory


Rawls uses the term "veil of ignorance" to refer to the process that should be used whenever governments modify basic human rights


The "original position" is an imaginary setting, not an actual historical setting


Susan Moller Okin criticizes Rawls for being ambiguous


Susan Moller Okin criticizes Rawls for being sexist


The moral-nonmoral distinction is descrpitive, meaning that it makes a value judgement about what we out to do


according to kant, morality is more a matter of action than of motives


kant's practical imperative suggests that all rational beings are both means and ends


the moral-nonmoral distinction is


the moral0immoral distinction is


kant distinguishes between tow functions of reason, ___, and____

theoretical reason/practical reason

____ reason is a function of reason confined to the empirical, phenomenal world, according to kant


___ reason begins with knowledge about moral conduct and produces religious feelings and intuitions, according to Kant


according to kant, the moral law

cannot be discovered in actual behavior

For Kant, goodness dpends on ___, not ____.

our will; our behavior

According to Kant, morality is a matter of


According to Kant, duty is defined as

the necessity of acting from respect for the moral law

_____ are propositions that tell us what to do under spicific, variable conditions

hypothetical imperatives

"Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become a universal law of nature" is a formulation of

the categorical imperative

By "maxim" Kant meant

the rule which is willed categorically

Kant held that ____ possess intrinsic worth

all rational creatures

According to John Rawles, the fundamental principles of justice are those principles _______

to which free and rational persons would agree

A thought experiment is _____

a way of using imagination to test a hypothesis that cannot be tested in fact

"____" is Rawl's term for an imaginary setting in which we can objectively identify fundamental principles of justice without succumbing to personal biases

Original position

The ____ is a problem-solving device that prevents us from knowing our social status and the like

veil of ignorance

Among other points, Susan Moller Okin suggests that Rawl's theory of justice pays too little attention to

the family

Okin criticizes Rawls for overlooking the effects of ____ on society


Okin asserts that Rawl's language is


According to the Melchert text, the supreme principle of morality, according to Kant, would have to be one that

has its foundation in pure reason

As presented in the Melchert text, according to Kant, a good will is one that

wills to do its duty

According to the Melchert text, the categorical imperative

forbids manipulation of others for our own purposes

Regarding freedom of the will, Kant says that

morality would not be possible without it

According to Kant, as presented in the Melchert text, I am autonomous in the realm of morality in the sense that

I am a legislator of the moral law for myself

Jeremy Bentham advocated democratic rule by the whole people rather than by a select class as a way of promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number


Bentham rejected psychological hedonism


Bentham wanted to make ethics a science


John Stuart Mill rejected unmodified, simple utilitarianism


Mill argued that all pleasures are equal


According to Mill, character and experience are major influences on what pleases us


Utilitarianism is a modern application of hedonism


Simple utilitarianism is based on the notion that

we must maximize pleasure and minimize pain

____ is the belief that we must base all decisions on considerations of pain and pleasure

psychological hedonism

_____ is the belief that it is morally wrong to avoid pleasure or choose pain

ethical hedonism

______ argued that welfare programs encouraged idleness and overpopulation


_____ described disease, famine, drought, and war as natural and historical "cures" for overpopulation


As the Enlightenment was the Age of Reason, the nineteenth century was the Age of


Bentham based his moral philosophy on the importance of

actual consequences

Bentham thought that all human activity is shaped by

pain and pleasure

One meaning of "utility" is


Bentham uses the term "utility" to mean


Which (if any) of the following is the best basic formulation of the principle of utility?

Act always to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number

Bentham named his technique for scientifically determining the proper course of action for any circumstance the ___.

hedonic calculus

Bentham referred to "units" of pleasure as


____ is the belief that all decisions are made in terms of furthering or hindering what we want or need

Psychological egoism

Bentham used ______ to show how our individual welfare is inseparable from social welfare

an egoistic hook

Bentham's utilitarianism is _____, whereas Mill's is _____

egoisticl; altruistic

Bentham thought that the only difference between two pleasures is


Kant _____

excluded animals from the kingdom of ends

A major difference between Mill and Bentham centered on whether or not _____

pleasures differ in quality

Mill argued that the only people qualified to settle disputes about the relative worth of two pleasures are those ____

who have experience of both

Mill argued that there are _____ grounds for claiming that some pleasures are superior to others


Mill said that some people choose lower pleasures because they

have weak characters and bad habits

Mill says that people lose their high aspirations if they ____

don't have the time or opportunity to indulge them

When Mill speaks of character, he refers to ________

socially conditioned habits

________ is the capacity to promote the welfare of others


According to Mill, a proper education ______

fosters social concern and good character

According to Mill, the principal cause of unhappiness is ____


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