158 terms

Psych 250 final exam review

Dr. Rona Carter's final exam review
According to Paiget, magical thinking is common during the preschool years because...
c. young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
Follow-up research indicates that even though preschoolers have difficulty with Piagetian class inclusion tasks, they...
a. organize their everyday knowledge into nested categories at an early age.
Four-year-old Hobie is asked to rate his competence in ice skating. He will probably..
a. rate his own ability as extremely high and underestimate the difficulty of skating.
Fernando has reached the self-reflected level of Seiman's stages of perspective taking. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Fernando?
c. He can "step into another person's shoes" and view his own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other person's persepective.
In a video shown in lecture, kids react to bullying after viewing the Little Zangief bullying video. Many kids were unable to view the bullying situation from both the bully and victim perspective simultaneously. These kids were displaying behavior consistent with Level ___ of Selman's stages of perspective taking.
d. 3
Three-year-old JT understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. JT is demonstrating the grasp of...
b. ordinality.
Jose is a rejected-withdrawn child who has developed a learned-helpless approach difficulties. This means that Jose...
d. assumes that he will never be liked, no matter what he does.
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust is resolved in the positive side when...
d. the balance of care is sympathetic and loving.
According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally...
b. by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior.
According to Erikson, a mother who ____ is likely to promote autonomy in toddlerhood.
b. gives a child an extra five minutes to finish playing before they leave the park.
Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliott's parents?
d. Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.
Four-year-old Tristan experiences negative emotion intensely. He is more likely than other children to...
c. react with anger or aggression when he is frustrated
Orson's parents smile and say "Yummy!' when he tries new vegetables. His parents are using ___ to try to influence Orson's food preferences.
b. social referencing.
What is true aboue basic emotions?
d. Babies' earliest emotional life consists of attraction of pleasant stimuli and withdrawal from unpleasant stimuli.
In a video shown in lecture, the father leaves the room while his son is in the midst of playing with his toy. A women, however, stays with teh boy. She tried to give him toys but he looks away and then cries hysterically. The boy displays...
d. separation anxiety.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that parents...
b. have different expectations for sons than for daughters.
What is an example of a direct parental influence on children's peer sociability?
b. Maxine arranges for her 4-year-old to paly with his friend at the park.
Sayuri, who lives in a collectivist culture, wins a game. Her parents will probably encourage Sayuri to feel...
a. embarrassed by the individual attention.
Research on the origins of ADHD indicates that...
d. ADHD is highly heritable.
___ is a strong predictor of emergent literacy.
a. Phonological awareness.
According to Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences,
b. cultural values and learning opportunities affect the extent to which a child's intellectual strengths are realized.
Paiget acknowledged that ___ is a child's most flexible means of mental representation.
a. language
Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of friends. Within this group there are specfici standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely...
d. part of a peer group.
During the school years, children refine their ___, organizing their observation behaviors and internal states into stable psychological dispositions.
c. self-concept
As a self-awareness strengthens, preschoolers begin to develop a...
b. self-concept
Dr. Whittier believes that many IQ tests sample knowledge and skills that not all preschool children have had the opportunity to learn. Dr Whittier's belief reflects the controversial question that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with...
a. test bias
11-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of usefull skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and taks pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has...
c. positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.
A concrete operational child can ___ mentally, an ability called ___.
d. seriate; transitive inference
For Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict ___ that causes children to feel too much ___ because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.
c. superego; guilt
Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) ___ style in the early years.
d. authoritative.
Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to change how they supervise their son. While they exercise general oversight, they now allow him to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. The Pribeshes are engaging in...
b. coregulation
Self-esteem takes on a ___ structure in middle childhood.
c. hierarchial.
4-year-old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it is "all spread out." Jasmine is demonstrating...
b. conservation
___ is early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
d. Temperament
Research on ___ reveals that school-age children view the mind as an active and constructive agent.
d. thoery of mind
5-year-old Chaim is participating in Piaget's three-mountains problem. when Chiam is asked to pick the picture that shows whatthe display looks like from the dot's perspective, he will most likely select..
b. the picture that shows his own POV
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophie because "she lies." This is an example of ___aggression.
c. relational
When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when gets a low grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed..
c. learned helplessness
Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to...
c. blame himself for the marital breakup
In the Strange Situation, Bernadette uses her mother as a secure base. When separated. Bernadette does not cry, but her mother returns, Bernadette craws in her arm. She is demonstrating ___ attachment.
a. secure
Josh is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to use be react negatively and intensely. In Thomas and Chess's research, Josh would be classified as a ____ child.
a. difficult
Humans are capable of a higher-order set of feelings beyond basic emotions called ___ emotions.
d. Self-conscious
Piaget regarded ___ as an important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clearn evidence of ___.
a. conservation; operations
In his triarchic theory of intelligence, Sternberg argues that ...
d. people who are creative think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty.
According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in ___ when he adjusts the support offerred to the child during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
a. scaffolding.
___ refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifyinng the precise features of communication.
c. Guided participation.
According to Thomas and Chess's research, ___ children are at high risk for anxious withdrawal and aggressive behavior in early and middle adulthood.
b. difficult
On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a ___ child.
d. controversial
Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in ___ play.
a. parallel
Research on corporal punishment shows that spanking is...
a. associated with a rise in problem behaviors if parents are cold and rejecting but not if they are warm and supportive.
In a video shown in lecture, 4-year-old Bradley watches an adult dress a male doll in "other gender" clothing. Bradley..
b. insists that the doll's sex has also changed.
Which of the following is supported by research on childhood obesity?
b. Overweight children tend to have overweight parents.
In early childhood, on average, childen add ___ inches in height and ___ pounds in weight each year.
c. 2 to 3; 5
What is true about ALL the panelists of moms discussing their infant care practices in lecture?
b. infants slept close to one or both of parents at bedtime, as opposed to in a separate room.
Mental abilities that decline at an eariler age typcially depend on ___ intelligence, wihle those that are sustained longer in life depend on ___ intelligence.
d. fluid; crystalized.
Bernice and Leo never had children. They married in their 30's and their effots at fertility treatments did not succeed. Bernice and Leo are...
a. involuntarily childless.
adolescents develop scientific reasoning skills..
c. in a step-by-step fashion on different type of tasks.
In college, Edward came to the realization that his own beliefs were often subjective. He noted that his roommate, who held vastly different beliefs from his own, had his own "truth." Edward was engaged in..
c. Relativistic thinking
The first outward sign of puberty is..
a. the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt.
What is true about Lawrence Kohlberg's well-known "Heinz dilemma"?
d. Kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma that determines moral maturity.
Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car in the large office parking lot. Therefore, she decides to park in the same area of the parking lot every day. She is using ___ knowledge.
d. metacognition
With the birth of Brenda's first child, she felt more fulfilled than every before. However, she also acknowledged feelings of concern and fear over being able to meet all of her parental responsiblities while maintaining personal happiness and satisfaction. Brenda's thinking reflects..
c. cognitive-affective complexity.
According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence is developement of...
c. identity
Shelby accepts her family's religious beliefs without question. She is characterized by identity..
d. foreclosure.
Which type of intelligence increases steadily throughout adulthood?
b. crystalized
Jonathon views himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to unusual depths of despaire. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to Jonathan's views?
b. the personal fable.
Mary and Ashley are identical twins. Abbie and Chandra are fraternal twins. Which of the following is liekly to be true about the timing of puberty?
b. Mary and Ashley will reach menarche within a month of two of each other.
According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love..
c. intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.
Which of the following is true about individual differnce in cognitive declines?
d. People with flexible personalities are likely to maintain mental abilities well into late adulthood.
Which of the following is NOT according to Sampelle and collegues article on menopause and midlife development in African American and Caucasian women?
d. Women identited menopause as a personal lifestage marker, which was specifically incorporated into their descriptions of the lifecourse.
When older adults engage in selective optimization with compensation, they..
c. select personally valued activities to optimize their energy and develop ways to compensat for losses.
Boys show superior athletic performance during the teenage years because..
d. they develop larger skeletal muscles, hearts, and lung capacity than girls.
Which woman is more likely to delay parenthood or decide against it altogether?
b. Renae, who has a high-status, demanding job
Ray's actual competence and performance in dealing with life's challeneges indicate his __ age.
c. functional
According to Arnett's 2000 article on Emerging Adulthood, which of these statements is true?
b. Emerging adulthood is a period that eists only in cultures that postpone the entry into adult roles and responsibilites until well past the late teens.
Gayle has had a few dates with Joine. Early ___ love is a strong predictor of whether they wlil keep dating.
d. passionate.
___ is the most common form of dementia.
b. Alzhemier's diease
On average, girls reach puberty...
2 years earlier than boys.
Laurent plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if he might change his career path, he respods, "I might, but I doubt it. I've spent a lot of time studying my options. I'm pretty sure engineering is right now me." Laurent is demonstrating identity..
c. achievement
According to Levinson, which of the following is true about gender differences in dreams?
d. most career-oriented women display split dreams involding both marriage and career.
Middle adulthood begins around age ___ and ends around age ___.
40; 65
According to Levinson, each season of life begins with a ____, which concludes the previous and prepares the person for the next one.
c. transition
According to Vaillant, men become "keepers of meaning," or gaurdians of their culture, in their..
b. 50's and 60's
Girls exposed to family conflict tend to reach menarche ___, whereas those with good family ties tend to reach menarche ___.
c. early; relatively late
When askes her political beliefs, Balir responds, "Oh, I don't know. It doesn't make much difference to me." Blaire is demonstrating identity...
b. diffusion
___ is the most consistent predictor of marital satisfaction.
d. age of marriage
The most common psychological problem of adolescence is...
c. dperession
Kia, age 14, uses hypothetic-deductive reasoning. Therefore, she probably...
b. makes preidictions about variables that might affect an outcome and then deduces logical, testable inferences from the hypothesis.
Bryson and his-workers are developing a new sales strategy. When Bryon's conclusions differ radically from the rest of the team, he considers the justifiability of his conclusions and revises them slightly. Bryson is engaged in...
a. epistemic cognition
Tabitha, age 22, felt stressed about the direction of her life. She had always planned to be married by 24 and have her first baby by 26. Tabitha's age-graded expectiations are...
c. consistent with the "feminine" social clock.
Which of the following individuals is most likely to experience a psychological crisis during the age-30 transition?
c. Miles, who has no romantic relationships and a dissatisfying job
Which statement most accurately reflects the sentiments of most Americans toward the homo and bisexuals?
d. Most Americans support civil liberties and equal employment opportunities for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.
Carol Gilligan believes that feminine morality..
d. emphasizes an "ethic of care" that Kohlberg's system devalues.
Which of the following is NOT a developmental tasks of adolesense is discusses in lecture?
b. acquiring more concrete ways of thinking
With regard to scientific knowledge, Ross has an extensive, highly organized intelligence base tha can be used to support a high level of performance. Ross has ___ in science.
c. expertise.
A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortial brain region is...
d. Parkinson's disease.
According to some researchers, cognitive development continues beyond Piaget's formal stage to the ___ level.
b. postformal thought.
Women who view menopause as a ___ report negative physical symptoms.
b. medical problem.
Jennifer loves playing the game "Grand Theft Auto." In the game, her character steals cars and has sex with many prostitutes. Jennifer's dad is worried that her hevy exposure to the game will alter her perception of social reality. According to the Strasburger 2005 article on media influence on adolescent sexuality, what kind of theoretical effect is Jennifer's dad worried about?
a. Cultivation Effect Theory
Which of the following athletes' skill will probably peak latest in life?
b. Rolf, a long-distance runner
Adam and Drake have a warm and trusting relationship. They share attitudes and values. They exchange trusting affection and caregiving. According to Sternberg, Adam and Drake display ___ love.
Adolescents who believe they are the focus of everyone's attention are experiencing..
c. the imaginary audience.
Current theorists agree that for most young people, identity development is not traumatic and disturbing but, rather, a process of ___ following by ____.
a. exploration; commitment
Sexual partners, whether dating, cohabiting, or married, tend to be..
a. similar in age and education
Early has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the ability to apply his knowledge to make life more worthwhile. Earl is demonstrating..
c. wisdom
In a video shown in lecture, the short clip of Everybody Love Raymond is consistent with what form of love from Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love?
b. companionate love
In a video shown in lecture from Sex and the City, Carrie tells Miranda "I can't stay in NY and be single for you...you've moved on, Charlotte has moved on, even Samantha has moved on.." This is an example of...
b. Social clock
Which of the following is true about the panelists on Becoming an Adult?
a. Tamara is a freshman
Theories are vital tools for developmental researches because they...
c. provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people.
Within the ___ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
a. discontinuous.
History-graded influences explain why __ tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times.
c. cohorts
Which of the following is an example of a nonnormative influence?
d. Patty learned to speak Spanish and French in college.
Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory all stress..
b. changes in thinking
The ___ method yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights into the many factors influencing development.
b. clinical
Case and effect inferences can be made in an experimental design becuase...
c. the researcher directly control or manipulates changes in the independent variable.
In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson..
b. pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture.
Baby Max begins to cry as soon as he sees his mother pick up her car keys. Max cries because he learned to associate the car keys with his mother leaving. This explains...
d. classical conditioning
A major weakness of the informaiton-processing perspective is that it...
b. virtually ignores all aspects of cognition that are not linear and logical.
Phenotypes depend in part on an individual's..
c. genotypes
Rodlike structures called ___ store and transmit genetic information.
b. chromosomes
___ hair is dominant, while ___ hair is recessive.
d. curly; straight
Children with diabetes tend to have fathers, not mothers, with this illness. The pattern of inheritance is best explained by...
c. genetic imprinting.
The Human Genome Project is an ambitious international research program aimed at...
c. discovering specific locations of genes that are linked to certain functions and certain diseases.
One of hte two major benefits of education for girls in developing countries is..
b. empowerment to improve their life conditions.
The concept of range of reaction explains that children who are exposed to the same environmental conditions...
a. may respond to them differently because of their genetic makeup
Anthony, a well-coordinated and muscular boy, decides to play high school football. This is an example of a(n)____ genertic-environmental correlation.
a. active
Development is best understood as...
c. a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture.
Which age group is likely to do more niche-picking?
a. adolescents
The outer ring of cells on a blastocyst, termed the trophoblast, will become the...
b. life support system for the embryo that provide protective covering and nourishment.
According to the film clip, In the Womb, the ___ folds over to form the ___.
b. edoderm; nerual tube
White, downy hair called ___ appears over the entire body during the second the fetus's skin.
c. lenugo
The effects of teratogens..
c. vary with age of the organism at hte time of exposure.
Which of the following is true about the consequences of smoking during pregnancy?
c. smoking during pregnancy can increase the likelihood of miscarriage, premature death, and childhood cancer.
Dana is pregnant with her first child and wonders how much weight she should gain during pregnancy. You should recommend a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of...
c. 25-30 lbs
Mark's Apgar ratings were 7 and 9. This indicats that Mark..
a. was in good physical condition at birth and five mintues afterwards.
Some form of medication is used in ___ percent of US births.
d. more than 80
Baby Amber opens and closes her eyes. Her breathing is even but somewhat fast. When open, her eyes have a glazed look. She is most likely in which of the following states?
b. drowsiness
___ is the least developed of a newborn baby's senses.
c. vision
Which of the following are consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?
d. during childhood, the arms and legs continue to grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet.
___ are tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch.
d. synapses
Which of the following is true about the cerebral cortex?
b. it is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain.
Which of the following is true about brain plasticity?
c. many areas of a highly plastic cerebral cortex are not yet committed to a specific...
In an investigation of children who had spent their first 8 months or more in Romania orphanage and then adopted into Canadian homes, late adoptees showed..
a. extreme stress reactivity
Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the (?) response if called..
d. punishment
Of all the motor skills ___ may play a role in infant cognitive development.
b. voluntary reaching.
Based on reserach findings reported in Morelli et al. 1992 (reading 1), which of the following about Mayan mothers regarding sleeping arrangements during the child's first 2 years is true?
d sleeping arrangements are not an issue until the child is displaced fomr the ... (?) baby
According to the cognitive perspective of perceptual development, babies..
b. impose meaning on what they perceive
Lana understnads that an object's shape is the same whether she sees it or touches it, that breaking a glass causes a sharp, crashing sound; and that the patter of footsteps signals the approach of a person. This understanding is called..
c. intermodal perception.
Paiget believed that infants and toddlers..
b. "think" with their eyes, ears, and hands
During ___, children use their current schemas to interpret the external world, whereas in ___, children create new schemas or adjust old ones after noticiing that their current way of thinking do not capture the environment completely.
a. assimilation; accomodation
According to Paiget, a ___ is a means of building schemas in which infants try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again.
b. circular reaction
Baby Adrian has retrieved his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Adrian has begun to master...
b. object permanence
Professor Park believes that babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems. Professor Park's beliefs are consistent with the ___ perspective.
b. care knowledge
Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called..
b. cooing
Chomsky's Language acquisition device is a..
d. device that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words.
At all ages, ___ develops ahead of ___.
c. comprehension; production
Which of the following is an example of an underextension?
c. Patty only uses the word "kitty" to refer to her family's cat.
Vygotsky bellieved that complex mental activites have their origin in..
c. social interaction