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Chapter 11: Personality

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Maslow describes people who have exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth as
self-actualizing.
According to Alfred Adler, overcompensation may be found in those who
have an inferiority complex.
The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the
ego
Having performed poorly on an exam, Barbara attempts to protect her feelings of self-worth by telling herself that it does not matter because the course really is not that important to her. Barbara is probably
rationalizing.
Janice was shown a series of cards with vague, ambiguous scenes and asked to describe what she thought was happening in each scene. Janice was given a(an) _____ test called the _____.
projective; TAT
According to Rogers what type of love influences children to overcome feeling of unworthiness?
unconditional
Which of the following is a common criticism of psychodynamic theories of personality?
lack of testability
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior are referred to as
self-report inventories.
The id is
the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
According to Freud, a basic defense mechanism that protects a person from anxiety by keeping distressing thoughts and feelings out of the conscious mind is
repression.
What is the name Carl Jung used to identify the level of the unconscious that stores latent memory traces inherited from our ancestral past?
collective unconscious
Psychodynamic personality theories focus on
unconscious mental forces.
Camilla thinks of herself as a shy person who is often anxious in social settings, however her friends would describe her as outgoing and relaxed. According to Carl Rogers, Camilla is likely to
experience incongruence.
The personality theorist who believed man's primary motivation is striving for superiority was
Alfred Adler.
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her
superego.
According to Freud, unresolved unconscious conflicts often produce
anxiety
Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can't have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she can't have the things that she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by
her id.
A person who tends to be selfish, demanding and disregards the rights of other people would appear to have a stronger _____ than _____.
id: superego
One primary criticism of behavioral theories of personality is that the theories
aren't very behavioral.
The personal unconscious and collective unconscious are associated with
Jung's theory.
The broad category of personality theory that assumes people are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious, irrational needs and conflicts is the
humanistic perspective.
Humanistic personality theories focus on
an individual's freedom and potential for growth.
According to Rogers, children who experience _____ love or affection tend to develop an incongruent self-concept as a result of blocking from their self-concept those experiences that did not receive parental affection.
conditional
Personality tests that ask individuals to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject's needs, feelings, and personality traits are referred to as
projective tests.
In explaining why Cole is deceitful and has a tendency to lie, a psychologist who held a strong behavioral view toward personality development would consider Cole's
previous learning experiences and his history of reinforcement.
The superego is Freud's term for
the moral component of personality.
Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by
his superego.
If she is using the defense mechanisms of reaction formation, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be
congruent with reality.
Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused is referred to as
a hierarchy of needs.
Freud believed that smoking, overeating, and habitual gum chewing could result from fixation in the _____ stage.
oral
The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Mr. Gorst is a very patient individual who always has time for any questions his children might ask. If Mr. Gorst's children grow up to be patient individuals, the development of this personality trait would be BEST explained using the concept of
observational learning.
Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life's challenges; according to Adler's theory Mark may exhibit
an inferiority complex.
The correct order of the needs in Maslow's hierarchy, from most basic to highest level, is
physiological, safety, love, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization
A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of
reaction formation.
Herb had the desire and potential to be a violinist but became, instead, a trader in hog futures. He decided never to touch the violin again. What is going on with Herb, according to Maslow?
he has not achieved self-actualization
A college student under stress throws a tantrum and cries and throws things. The behavior of the student is an example of the defense mechanism known as
regression.
The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are
defense mechanisms.
A man is really angry at his boss but he takes out his anger on his wife. The wife then spanks her child, the child then kicks the dog, and the dog then bites the mailman. This situation illustrates the defense mechanism known as
displacement.
Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck's theory all approach the study of personality from the
biological perspective.
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
displacement
The portion of the personality that mediates between instinctual demands and the external social world is the
ego
Much of the behavior that we call personality results from reinforcement and observational learning, according to
Bandura,
One criticism of humanistic theories of personality is that the theories
are unrealistically optimistic about human nature.
The central aspect of Adler's theory of personality is that people
strive to adapt and master life's challenges.
Which of the following definitions of "personality" BEST reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?
Pursuit of primary & secondary reinforces; priorities depend of personal history.
If she is using the defense mechanism of projection, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
believe that her son hated her
Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures
archetypes.
Dr. Hewlett believes that early childhood experiences have a strong influence on adult personality, and that our personality is largely shaped by unconscious forces. Dr. Hewlett's views most closely mirror those of the
psychodynamic perspective.
Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents' affection as
conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.
By attributing our own unacceptable feelings to others and saying others have the feelings and not us, we are using
projection.
The Oedipal complex occurs during the
phallic stage.
Having a rather poor sense of self-worth, Bruce attempts to make himself feel important by belonging to an exclusive tennis club and eating at the best restaurants. Bruce may be using the defense mechanism of
identification
Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister: "I can't wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy." Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
phallic stage.
The major theoretical disagreement Jung and Adler had with Freud concerned Freud's emphasis on
sexuality.
According to Freud's theory, either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs may result in
fixation
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward to the next stage, a phenomenon that Freud called
fixation.
The major criticism humanistic personality theorists have concerning BOTH psychodynamic and behavioral theories of personality is that those theories
Not enough empirical findings.
The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's _____, according to Rogers.
self-concept