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Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders

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An individual thinks he is Jesus Christ. He also believes that, because he is Christ, people are trying to kill him. Assume that this individual is not correct - he is not Christ, and people are not trying to kill him. Which of the following would be the most likely diagnosis?
paranoid schizophrenia
Grayson seems to be preoccupied with the possibility that he might miss an important message from someone in his family. He checks for new messages on his answering machine every 15 minutes. Grayson's constant checking for messages could be considered an example of
compulsion
Which of the following class of mental disorders has the greatest prevalence in our culture?
depression
The somatoform disorders include
somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, and conversion disorder
It is MOST accurate to state, while an individual with a unipolar disorder experiences episodes of _______, a person with a bipolar disorder experiences episodes of _______.
depression; both depression and mania
The primary characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia is
the presence of delusions of persecution and grandeur
Mayra has a psychological disorder, and her doctor has prescribed a drug that affects the levels of dopamine in her nervous system. Based on this information, it is most likely that Mayra is being treated for
a schizophrenic disorder
After several weeks of feeling gloomy and being socially withdrawn, Marco has suddenly become extremely sociable and talkative. He doesn't seem to need any sleep, and he becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Marco's behavior is consistent with
bipolar disorder
The disorder marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from rigidity to random motor activity and incoherence is termed
catatonic schizophrenia
Kimberly constantly thinks her immaculate house is dirty and spends most of her day cleaning, scrubbing, and straightening up. She could be diagnosed as having
obsessive-compulsive disorder
Behavior that interferes with an individual's social or occupational functioning may be considered to be
maladaptive
The anxiety disorder characterized by a chronic high level of anxiety that is exhibited by constant worrying and is often associated with physical symptoms such as heart palpitations and muscle tension is
generalized anxiety disorder
The major difference between a phobic disorder and a generalized anxiety disorder is that
anxiety is specific to one object or situation in a phobic disorder, but is "free floating" in a generalized anxiety disorder
According to the medical model of psychological disorders, prognosis refers to
a statement concerning the probable course of the disorder
The psychological disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with one's health and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses is
hypochondriasis
One symptom of schizophrenic disorders involves an individual having false beliefs that are maintained even though the beliefs clearly are out of touch with reality. These beliefs are referred to as
delusions
Jack always complains of being sick. He is convinced he is dying. His physicians have all told him that there is nothing wrong with him and he should live well into his 80s. Jack does not believe the physicians and continues to search for a doctor who will confirm that he is sick. Jack's behavior is MOST consistent with the symptoms of
a somatoform disorder.
Susan has withdrawn from social contact with others. She spends most of her time alone in her bedroom. She has stopped going to her job and no longer talks to her family on the phone. Additionally, Susan neglects her personal hygiene and rarely bathes, brushes her teeth, or changes clothes. Susan's behavior BEST illustrates which symptom of schizophrenia?
deterioration of adaptive behavior
A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory concerning a limited period of time, usually after a particularly stressful or traumatic event, is
dissociative amnesia
The terms "mental illness" and "psychopathology" are most closely associated with which model of abnormal behavior?
the medical model
Schizophrenic disorders are a class of psychological disorders characterized by
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
The DSM classification system is said to be "multiaxial." This means that the system
asks for judgments about individuals on numerous separate dimensions
On the DSM-IV, disorders of mood would be recorded on
Axis I of the DSM-IV
Jack is experiencing extreme motor rigidity, is very withdrawn from his surroundings much of the time, and at other times is mentally disorganized and fragmented. Jack is likely experiencing this subtype of schizophrenia.
catatonic
Oscar was recently taken into custody in Idaho when he was found wandering the streets with no identification. When the police questioned him, Oscar had no idea who he was or where he lived. A check of missing persons showed that he had been missing from his home in Tennessee for the past 10 days. In this case, it is most likely that Oscar would be classified as having
dissociative fugue
Research with CT scans and MRI scans suggests that there is an association between chronic schizophrenic disturbance and
enlarged brain ventricles
The primary symptom of catatonic schizophrenia is
motor disturbances ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
Consistent with the medical model, the primary use of DSM-IV is
diagnosis
During World War II, a number of bomber pilots developed night blindness although nothing was found to be wrong with their vision. Which disorder were the pilots MOST likely to be experiencing?
conversion disorder
characterized
a significant loss of physical functioning which usually affects a single organ system of the body
The subtype or category of schizophrenia that can be considered a miscellaneous or "left-over" subtype for individuals who are clearly schizophrenic but do not show specific symptoms associated with the other subtypes is
undifferentiated schizophrenia
Paralyzing attacks of overwhelming anxiety along with physical symptoms that may occur at any time are characteristic of
panic disorder
The major difference between a somatization disorder and a conversion disorder is that
somatization disorders involve a wide variety of organs and symptoms; conversion disorders involve loss of function in a single organ system (e.g., blindness or paralysis)
The system used by psychologists to classify psychological disorders is the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
A two-category scheme for classification of schizophrenia has been suggested as an alternative to the older four categories. These two categories are based on
predominance of positive or negative symptoms
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by
disruptions in the normal maturational processes of the brain before of at birth.
Paralysis or loss of feeling that does not match underlying anatomical organization is a symptom of
conversion disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder was first diagnosed as a mental disorder after this event in history.
Vietnam war
Walter is only able to achieve sexual arousal by dressing in women's clothing. In the American culture his behavior would MOST likely be considered
deviant
Panic disorder is characterized by
unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear
Prior to the 18th century, people who exhibited abnormal behavior were thought to be
possessed by evil spirits and were treated through exorcism
Relapse rates are higher for schizophrenic patients who
have families high in expressed emotion
An unwanted thought that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual's consciousness is called
an obsession
That psychologists use the concepts diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis when describing psychological disorders reflects the usefulness of the _____ of abnormal behavior.
medical model
A "John Doe" walked into the police station and reported that he had an unusual problem. He could not remember anything about himself, not where he lived or worked or even his name. The police took him to the local hospital where he was evaluated and found to have no physical injuries. "John Doe's" symptoms are MOST consistent with
dissociative fugue
Kevin hears voices singing even though none are present. Kevin suffers from
hallucinations
The class of psychological disorders characterized by people losing contact with portions of their consciousness or memory which results in disruption in their sense of identity is
dissociative disorders
If a psychological disorder results in an individual having difficulty completing routine or necessary everyday activities, the individual's behavior would MOST likely be considered
maladaptive behavior
Agoraphobia is a fear of
going out to public places
Carly has had intense feelings of sadness for the past several weeks. She has very little energy and has stopped going out with her friends. She has lost her appetite and rarely cooks. Carly feels her situation is hopeless and that she only has herself to blame. MOST likely Carly has
major depressive disorder
Somatoform disorders are a class of psychological disorders characterized by
physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions
A person who often complains of stomach pain, headaches, and dizziness although doctors cannot find anything physically wrong is MOST likely to have
somatization disorder
Sean, a junior in college, has difficulty making decisions and when he finally makes a decision he worries about whether it was the right decision. He constantly worries about his courses, future, girlfriend, and getting a summer job. Recently Sean has had heart palpitations and muscular tension. Sean's symptoms are MOST consistent with
generalized anxiety disorder
A phobic disorder is characterized by
persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation
Thomas Szasz would be most critical of the commonly used criterion to diagnose psychological disorders that relates to
deviance
An individual gets sudden, paralyzing attacks of anxiety and fears going out in public away from her house. Which anxiety disorder does this describe?
panic attack and agoraphobia
Etiology refers to the
apparent cause of a condition
While a person with _____ experiences anxiety only in certain specific situations, a person with _____ experiences anxiety in a wide variety of situations.
phobic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
Mood disorders are a class of psychological disorders characterized by
emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
Jose has a psychological disorder, and his doctor has prescribed a drug that affects both the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in Jose's nervous system. Based on this information, it is most likely that Jose is being treated for
depression