8.2 Key Terms: Mysteries of the Human Body
Terms in this set (28)
The small circular area in the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light.
The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
A large projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum.
The integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system composed of right and left hemispheres.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule that determines the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
The bodily system that in vertebrates is made up of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to the effector organs.
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
Hearing loss or impairment resulting from exposure to loud sound.
Either of the pair of sensory nerves that comprise the second pair of cranial nerves, arise from the ventral part of the diencephalon, form an optic chiasma before passing to the eye and spreading over the anterior surface of the retina, and conduct visual stimuli to the brain.
A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
optical nerves, thalamus, and occipital lobes
auditory nerves, temporal lobes
olfactory nerves, olfactory bulbs, olfactory center, hypothalamus
nerves, thalamus, parietal lobe _____
frontal lobe, hypothalamus, amygdala
What structure acts as a relay station for all senses except smell?
Identify the part(s) of the brain involved with: Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory, & Movement
Short-term memory (parietal, upper temporal, and occipital lobe) Long-term memory (hippocampus, frontal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus) & Movement (cerebellum)
What part of the brain controls essential survival functions such as breathing and heart beat?
What region of the brain is responsible for complex thinking such as memory, speech, emotion, planning, and reasoning? Explain.
Frontal lobe; largest of the cerebrum's 4 lobes, well connected with the limbic system
Why is the brain stem sometimes called the "reptilian brain"?
This is the oldest and most basic brain region
Why do you "see stars" when you hit the back of your head?
You may damage the occipital lobe which is connected to the optical nerves