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Sociology 1000 online Midterm Mizzou (Brent)
Terms in this set (147)
the Scientific study of social life
The relationship between individuals and social structures
Focuses on individuals such as studies of small groups and attitude change
focusing on social structures, such as studies of political and economic systems
applying the scientific method to the social world
Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills)
the capacity for individuals to understand the relationship between their individual lives and broad social forces that influence them
the relationship between private troubles and public issues
Q. The relationship between private troubles and public issues is associated with..?
A. the sociological imagination
recurring themes in this course
2.the social construction of reality
Q. Which of the following is not one of the recurring themes covered in this course?
A. the mind-body dualism
1. Structural-functional theory
2. Conflict theory
3. Interactionist theory
Internalized Social control
When people do things because they believe it is the right thing to do, not because they are forced to do so.
When individuals can make decisions and take actions that influence their own lives and those of others.
Symbols can be
Used to communicate meaning between people
Important characteristics of groups that cannot be reduced to some simple combination of characteristics of individuals.
Definition of the situation
a statement or action that explicitly or implicitly suggests the meaning the actor would like others to attribute to their actions
a shared meaning for the situation agreed upon by all participants
Symbolic interactionist perspective (Mead)
people can interact by taking the role of the other
Social structure is
enduring, relatively stable patterns of social behavior.
Constrain social behavior, even individual behaviors.
Q. which sociologist conducted of the first study of social statistics related to suicide?
A. Emile Durkheim
regular patterns that exist independent of individuals and are beyond the control of individuals
structural-functional theory was developed by...
-Some social structures lead to important consequences.
-The consequences help Societies survive.
-Societies that survive are more likely to have these structures.
Q. Which theoretical perspective is Karl Marx associated with?
A. conflict theory
Society consists of groups competing for scarce resources
Social change (Weber)
a pervasive aspect of social life
Is based on rational action guided by subjective understanding anchored and shared cultural ideas.
Five standards of scientific knowledge
1. Empirically testable
Q. how does sociology differ from the natural sciences?
A. subjective experience, reactivity, ethical issues in the study of human subjects
Subjective experience (Verstehen)
to understand people's actions we must understand what their acts mean to them
The extent to which humans being studied respond to the research process or the researcher by changing their behavior, unintentionally or intentionally
The Hawthorne effect
Refers to the unintended effects on behavior produced when people are aware they're being studied.
statements describing what we think we know about social life.
They include concepts and logical statements
Particular assertions of a theory selected for testing in research
Testing by sampling are measuring.
This generates data which can then be analyzed with statistics.
A subset of members of the population rather than the entire population
If a sample produces results that are systematically different from those of the population in a specific direction
Q. would the students in this class be an unbiased sample of people in Columbia?
A. no it's is biased
A sample of people who are selected because they're easy to find
A sample including specific numbers of cases falling in various subcategories
Each case in the population has some probability of being included
In measurable trait or characteristic which can vary and which is used to measure a concept
An operational definition
Connects a concept to a variable by describing procedures use to measure it in sufficient detail so that someone else could perform the same procedure and get a similar result.
Is the variable consistent?
Doesn't measure what we think it measures?
Mathematical measures summarizing important characteristics about a sample
Summarize the distribution of a variable
Measures of association
Examine the strength and direction of the relationship between variables
Tests of significance
Ask whether a results could have occurred by chance
Q. The average score on a test with 75%. The 75% would be an example of what kind of statistic?
Emphasizes numbers, things you can count, and statistical analysis
Emphasizes verbal, descriptive information, downplays numbers, captures the richness of social life.
Researchers watch subjects to see how they behave in various circumstances
A formal, quantitative method of observation in which researchers develop a systematic set of codes and analyze the results statistically
Researcher participates in and is directly involved in the lives of those he or she is studying
A typically detailed descriptive account summarizing and interpreting a culture or a collection of people studied
A true insider
Someone already participating in the context in a nonresearch role who chooses to study that setting
A researcher acting as an insider
A researcher who pretends to be an insider
Someone who does not disguise the role as a researcher
Gather information by asking people questions
Someone who answers questions in a social survey
An effective way to improve knowledge and come to an agreement
A way to make arguments self-correcting.
Thinking that leaves your thought processes least vulnerable to error
A social debate in which the primary goal is to win not to improve your understanding or achieve mutually agreed solutions
Require self reflection and self criticism
Open minded thinking
That is open to possibilities, seeks out information, and is willing to trust logic and empirical data to take us in right direction
puts the argument and broader context so that it can be better understood.
Uses evidence and context to moderate or discount conclusions
the ability to reason at many different levels of abstraction, and to be able to generalize from the particular to the abstract
The view that different views are necessarily equally valid
Thinking is this when it uses relevant evidence, and rigorous methods to choose among competing alternatives
The exercise of logical rational skills, analytic skills, the ability to think clearly and effectively.
Occurs when the arguer makes it appear there're only two choices, then eliminates one, making it appear the other must be selected.
Occurs when someone makes assumptions or generalizations about an entire category of cases based on very few cases that are most likely too few or biased.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc argument
an argument that becasue Y follows X, Y must have been caused by X.
A fallacy in argument that asserts that if something is done it will result in a series of increasingly dire consequences
Affirming the consequent
Reasoning that argues that because the consequent of the statement is true, the antecedent must be true as well
Occurs when two things are argued to be similar and hence a property of one is also a property of the other
Argue for against an idea based on it's source
Suggest something must be true because most people believe it
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
A combination of ideas, behaviors, and material objects that people have created and adopted for carrying out necessary tasks of daily life
Q. which of the following is an example of culture?
A. language, movies, sports
The art, architecture, technological artifacts, and material objects created by a society
Everything about culture that is not part of material things
Words, gestures, pictures, that conveys meaning to people who share culture
Argues that language shapes thought
Standards of desirability, rightness, or importance in a society
Expectations for behavior
Rules governing everyday conduct that are not considered to be morally important and are not strictly enforced
Or taboos, are serious norms for important activities having a strong moral imperative and strictly enforced
Acts designed to encourage behaviors conforming to norm and discourage behaviors that violate norms
Adopting the norm as your own
A culture containing many elements of the dominant culture, but having unique features that distinguish its members from the rest of the population
A subculture that challenges important elements of the dominant culture such as beliefs, attitudes, or values and seeks to create an alternative lifestyle
A perspective that recognizes the contributions of diverse groups to our society and holds that no single culture is any better than all the rest
Give you that your own culture is The standard against which other cultures can be judged right or wrong
Negative, biased generalizations regarding all people in the same category
The artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that elites in a society used to distinguish themselves from the masses
strategy of distinction
All the artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that appeal to the masses
Cultural lag theory
Technological change drives other changes and culture, with other cultural elements often lagging behind technology
The spread of cultural elements including objects and ideas from one culture to another
The reduction of differences between cultures resulting in a loss of cultural uniqueness and cultural heritage
The functional view: inheriting culture
Socialization is one of the primary means by which culture including knowledge is passed from one generation to the next
The conflict view: passing on advantage
Socialization is the means by which the rich and powerful pass on their advantages to their children
A process of socialization in which children of the rich are prepared for an directed towards positions of privilege and society while children of the poor are prepared for and directed into low prestige positions of subservience
The symbolic interactionist view: constructing the social self
1. Preparatory stage
2. Play stage
3. Game stage
4. Adult stage
Q. why is early socialization important?
A. because children are so impressionable
Socialization can be different depending on social characteristics like race, social class, gender
Refers to the interactions between genders that tends to strengthen and perpetuate gender boundaries
Socialization for a status that occurs before the person occupies the status
A process of unlearning old norms, roles, and values, and then learning new ones required by the new social environment
A ritual in which someone experiences negative, often extremely embarrassing events in the presence of others
Socialization occurring in settings intentionally designed for socialization
Socialization and which peers and more experienced members trained newcomers as they carry out their roles
Q. which of the following is not a common stage in the process of dying?
Stages of grief
denial, anger, bargaining, resignation (depression), acceptance
Rights of passage
Ceremonies marking important transitions in life such as the passage from being single to being married
Q. True or false: Rights of passage referred to events that society deems to be positive
Regular patterns of social interaction and persistent social relationships
A socially recognized position in the social system
A status into which individuals are assigned without regard for their actions, desires, or abilities
A social status acquired during individuals own actions
A status set
The set of all status is occupied by a person at the same time
A position so important it dominates all other statuses in the individual status set
The status that defines or structures the role set for a particular situation
Any status formally defined as a relevant to a situation in which should have no bearing on interaction
Division of labor
When social statuses divide which different people perform distinct tasks
set of expectations for anyone occupying a particular social status
Actions by an individual occupying a social status based on their role
Modifications or changes in roles as a results of individual action by people occupying those roles
Difficulties meeting the expectations of a single role
When different roles have incompatible expectations
Avoid statuses invoking incompatible roles for the same role partner
A separation of ones self from the role one must play. It is a strategy to separate identity from action
In assumption that, once having been made, leads to the predicted event occurring
Emphasizes the meaning of actions and the use of symbols in communication
Use interaction as analogous to actors in a play
Social exchange theory
Emphasizes the valued outcomes of the interaction
The social construction of reality
the process by which people define reality, influenced by interactions with others as well as their own life experiences and assumptions
Defining the situation
Refers to the social process through which the statuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified
a social structure determined by the interactions through which people propose, discuss, and often settle on a shared definition of the situation providing meaning for actions
strategies people use to convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people
Others present whom they would like to impress
Audience is not present and individual does not have to actively engage in impression management
Work activity requiring the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service
Norm of reciprocity
If you give someone something, you expect them to give you something of equal value in return
the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs
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