Professional Knowledge FTCE
Terms in this set (168)
"Kolb - learning through experience
1. Concrete Experience - real-life experiences
2. Observation & reflection - reflecting on real-life experiences
3. Abstract conceptualization - new ideas/understanding as a result of reflection
4. Active experimentation - experiment with new ideas and apply them (concrete) "
Reg Revan - tackling problems in small groups with the hopes of being able to solve issues with the support of your team.
"Learning is more meaningful whenever students can interact with the concepts they're trying to solve. Experiencing things first hand rather than passively listening.
Examples: Role playing, debating, cooperative learning groups, science labs, etc. "
"Specific behavior occurs because of:
1. the environment
2. the reinforcements/consequences set up to encourage/deter the behavior. "
Cognitive Developmental Stage Theory
"Piaget - the development of the brain occurs progressively throughout childhood.
1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years) - understanding based upon direct, physical interaction with the environment. (No object permanence)
2. Preoperational (2-7 years) - pretend play, using symbols to represent an object (language), egocentric - don't realize other point of views.
3. Concrete operational (7-11 years) - imagining things, conceptualizing, using math, (equal water in short, fat glass vs. tall, skinny glass)
4. Formal operational (11-15 years) - abstract thinking, moral reasoning"
"Culture is an important influence on human development.
Scaffolding is necessary in order for students to learn new, challenging things. "
Students learn best when they're working together in a group or individually competing against others to receive awards set out by the teacher.
Sensory stimulation theory
When the senses are stimulated, effective learning can take place. Students learn by watching something being done (seeing), and then by listening to something (hearing). Students learn best when two senses are stimulated.
Gestalt approach/Holistic Learning Theory
Things should be taught with continuity and connections between concepts rather than breaking things down into separate independent pieces. Students should understand context of why they're doing what they're doing. Learn best through experience.
Humanistic Approach to Learning
Carl Rogers - an environment must be safe in order for students to study well. Students learn best when they have a choice in what they want to learn and can give feedback.
Persuasive Models Social Learning Theory
be a persuasive model - teachers should demonstrate how to act in classroom and students should know what to expect from the teacher.
Combination of one's attitudes, experiences, and previous knowledge. Can be shaped by home environment and daily activities. Word association, metaphors/analogies are one way to activate prior knowledge.
opinions or conceptions formed before adequate knowledge or experience has been accessed.
Using deductive or inductive reasoning to solve something.
Process by which we derive a new idea. More likely to happen when constantly taking in new ideas
Steps to Problem Solving
1. Identify problem 2. Look for causes to the problem 3. Come up with as many solutions as possible. 4. Come up with the best way to solve the problem. 5. Finalize how the problem was solved clearly.
Components of Problem Solving
"1. given information (i.e., numbers)
2. operators (i.e., long division)
3. a goal (i.e., the solution)."
In order to build high-level thinking skills, one must first use lower-level skills in order to build up towards the higher-level skills. The levels are: 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation
Small groups to work in where everyone has a specific role and everyone is reliant upon everyone for group success.
Teacher talks, students listen. Example of passive learning. May be more effective in disseminating information quickly as teacher has more control.
Bruner - student centered approach to learning that requires students to use inductive reasoning to solve problems. Students are learning through their own experiences and solving problems (asking questions, collecting data, making conclusions, etc.)
Teacher must structure information properly from a general form leading into a more specific form that helps students see their own progress.
Whole group discussion
Usually, students are contributing comments that are directed by the teacher. Needs to be well-planned. Important for teacher to facilitate and not let any one student dominate discussion.
should come when a student has been scaffolded properly to work independently.
Students will learn more when connections are made between other subjects.
representing knowledge in graphs or visual organizers.
Learning by asking questions and using the knowledge you already posses.
a means of teaching and often follows IRE (initiate (ask a question), respond (student response), evaluate (teacher evaluates idea)).
Play and learning
Children should be allowed to play as a means of learning through a natural environment.
Set up by teachers to help students foster their own learning. Resources should be gathered in advance and students should be given the tools to self-evaluate and learn independently.
curriculum that is developed based upon students' interests and desires. Takes time for teacher to develop after getting to know students. (dynamic curriculum)
Three Domains of Learning
"Bloom's domains that describes the progression of three different areas of learning. Learning is most effective when all three domains are targeted.
3. Psychomotor "
"Bloom's progression of how someone's attitudes, values, and feelings progress.
1. receiving phenomena (awareness of feelings)
2. responding to phenomena (the learner engaged in active participation)
3. valuing (ability to see worth)
4. organization (ability to put value on one thing over another)
5. characterization ( ability to internalize values)."
"Bloom's progression from low-order thinking skills to high-order thinking skills.
"Bloom's progression of how one learns physical skills.
1. perception (applying sensory information to motor activity)
2. set (readiness to act)
3. guided response (ability to imitate a shown behavior)
4. mechanism (ability to change a learned response into habitual actions)
5. complex overt response (ability to carry out complex action patterns)
6. adaptation (ability to change learned skills to meet particular events)
7. origination (making new patterns for a given situation)."
Components of an Objective
"A = audience (the student)
B = Behavior expected of the student (desired outcome such as define, describe, construct, classify etc.)
C = Content in which learning occurs (information)
D = Degree of competency or accuracy (often expressed as a percentage). "
"Ask the student to perform a task or generate a response and require active responses that result in a product or an event. Examples: projects, presentations, essays, hands-on activities.
Grade Equivalent Score
Show how a student is performing relative to what's expected at their grade level.
datum that hasn't been transformed into another representation (percentage).
standardized score based upon normal distribution or standard deviation units (SAT/GRE/etc)
Cutoff score that decides whether or not someone has mastered a concept or not
Why/how questions with one right answer. Represent the analysis and integration of previous knowledge.
Questions that may have more than one answer. Requires students to reflect on what they know and come up with new ideas. Examples include brainstorming and free-writing.
Three Types of Bilingual Education
"1. Submersion - dropped in an all-English classroom and succeed or fail.
2. Immersion - taught in only English by someone who understands their native language
3. Transitional - child's native tongue is used only to explain difficult topics in English until student achieves fluency."
Lau vs. Nichols Case
Group of Chinese students had a class action suit filed for them against a school distict in San Francisco for not helping with their language problems. This case paved the way for bilingual education progress in the U.S.
Second Language Acquisition
"Stage 1: Pre-production: Students have limited English abilities and will only communicate if provoked by the teacher.
Stage 2: Early production: 6 months in which students will learn to answer in 1-2 word phrases and perhaps memorized sentences. Language acquisition is exhausting for students at this stage.
Inability to accept another culture's world view.
Differnential treatment of an individual due to minority status, whether actual or perceived.
Generalizing how a person is to be treated while ignoring individual differences.
Differences in culture are ignored as though they don't exist.
The belief that everyone should conform to the majority.
"Erikson's 8 stages:
(TAIIIIGE) (Trust, Autonomy, Initiative, Industry (skills), Identity, Intimacy, Generativity, Ego-Integrity)"
Stage 1: Learning basic trust vs. basic mistrust
(0-2) those who are loved develop trust.
Stage 2: Learning autonomy vs. shame
(2-5) well-loved child develops sense of control.
Stage 3: Initiative vs. guilt
(5-6) the child disconnects from the parent and becomes a leader. They begin to develop independence and an imagination.
Stage 4: Industry and inferiority
(6-10) Children acquire skills which enable them to be successful. If they fail, they feel inferior.
Stage 5: Identity
(12-18) The child defines him or herself as a separate thinking entity and experiments with different roles.
Stage 6: Intimacy and isolation
(18-40) The child forms lasting social unions and pursues true intimacy.
Stage 7: Generativity vs. stagnation
(40 - 65) - Marriage/Parenthood - Working cooperatively and productively becomes most important rather than independent goals
Stage 8: Ego integrity vs. despair
(65+) After all other steps have been met, the mature adult can experiment after working hard previously and can feel proud of past. --> Wisdom
Visual, Oral, Kinesthetic
8 Multiple Intelligences
Disabilties qualifying for special programs:
specific learning disabilities, speech/language/hearing/visual/orthopedic impairments, intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities, autism, combined deafness & blindness, traumatic brain injury
occur whenever there is an interruption in the input processes between the sensory organs. (visual/auditory, physical impairment)
Patterns of disordered behavior
1. externalizers - aggressive, disruptive,
2. internalizers - withdrawn, anxious, depressed"
Socialized delinquency -
SED (Serious Emotional Disturbance)
inability to build relationships with people, general unhappiness and depression.
ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder)
negative, defiant behavior for more than 6 months.
Steps to Inclusion of the gifted
1. arrange students in groups of equal/similar levels
2. teachers match instructional strategies to the needs of the students
3. differentiated curriculum
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
- 1990 - outlines the rights of individuals with disabilities in all ways except education. This law requires non-discriminatory treatment, wheelchair ramps, wide doors, etc.
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
(amended 1975 law PL 95-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act) - law that guarantees children with disabilities a right to free public education. Ensures that all students have an IEP in the least restrictive environment for them. Provides a bit of funding for schools to make accomodations.
Allows students with physical disabilities to be placed in certain regular education classes. Students should only be mainstreamed if the resources at the school are available and existing students are educated about disabilities.
students meaningfully participate in all classes - better option if the proper resources are available Pros - non-discriminatory, need to reform special education classrooms
Oberti vs. Board of Education -
court case which specified three considerations for determining placement of disabled children:
"3 considerations for determining placement of a disabled child:
1. steps taken by school to try to include child in the general education class.
2. comparison between the benefit a child would receive in a general ed class vs. a segregated one.
3. possible negative effects inclusion might have on other students in the classroom."
IEP (Individualized Education Program)
set by IDEA. Students with disabilities have their own specially designed program to meet their needs. Plan is written in conjunction with student, parents, school officials, and teachers.
Teachers not affected by the IEP do not have to attend meeting.
The plan should:
1. evaluate achievement
2. outline goals and plan to achieve goals
3. details on student inclusion in activities
4. can include a transitional plan.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Says all federally funded programs must remove any barriers preventing people with disabilities from participating. Employers must make "reasonable" accomodations for disabled employees. (Does not give organizations additional funding)
Cognitive View of Motivation
believes that behavior is influenced by the way that people think about themselves and the environment in which they are in.
Four influences of motivation:
"1. need to make sense of one's experience
2. knowing one's expecations to complete a task
3. factors that one considers as success/failure
4. one's belief about own ability to solve problems and think critically."
"B.F. Skinner - consequence of a given behavior enocourages/deters continuation of a specific behavior.. (positive & negative)
Get an A on your homework and get 5 dollars from your parents. "
Skinner & Thorndike - someone learns based upon the consequences of their behavior. (reinforcements & punishments)
Richard and Patricia Shmuck -
Teacher needs to establish and maintain a well-controlled classroom that nurtures cooperation
Lee and Marlene Canter -
Using discipline to control behavior
Competitive Goal Structures -
grading on a curve means that students some students will always suffer. Students are overly competitive and only want to out-perform each other.
Individual Goal Structures -
students work alone and earn rewards based upon individual performance.
Cooperative Goal Strucutres -
students work together to achieve goals
Federal vs. State Education
The federal government ensures education for all but the states run the education.
Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974
No state shall deny equal educational opportunity based upon race, sex, etc.
Title 20 Equal Access
Denial of equal access to education is prohibited. Any school that receives federal financial assistance can't discriminate.
FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act)
protects privacy rights of students with regard to certain types of educational records. Information can't be released without student/parent approval. Also gives rights to the parents to challenge the accuracy of a student's academic records
CAPTA (federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act)
identifies a minimum set of acts or behaviors that characterize maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse)
AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress)
term used to explain whether a stduent has met yearly expectations from the state assessments
School in need of improvement
Term used to describe whether a school has met state assessment expectations in reading/writing two years in a row. If not, schools will receive additional help. Child also has option to transfer to another public school or receive free tutoring
SES (Supplemental Educational Services)
term used to refer to a student from a low-income family who needs extra help from school.
HQT (Highly Qualified Teacher)
teacher has college degree, state certified, and knows the subject matter they're teaching.
a teaching technique that relates similar concepts to one another
Classroom Objectives & Assessment
Teacher should write objectives, come up with how they will assess objectives, and then can evaluate the effectiveness of instructional methodologies.
Are designed to help students self-monitor or comprehend their reading better.
Complex Content to Teach
In order to teach complex concepts, introduce variety into the lesson to provide students many contexts for learning something.
Metaphors and Analogies
Both used to compare two unlike things can can be used to activate prior knowledge in students.
Types of Questions
"Elaborating/Divergent: questions that force students to answer beyond level of concrete knowledge
Convergent/Closed: Specific answers
Clarifying: May use critical thinking but might end up in specific answer. "
"the process of repeating concepts in order to make them more memorable
Singing a song is a good way to do this. "
Student should always be warned before the consequence is given to ensure the student has time to think about their actions.
Tests that measure how well a student has mastered a set of learning objectives.
Tests that measure how well a student does compared with another student.
How consistent/precise a test is.
Methods to determine test reliability
"1. test-retest (students take test more than once)
2. split-half (half students take half of the test, another take the other half and compare the results)
3. equivalent forms"
Do two teachers mark the same test the same?
Does a test accurately assess what it aims to?
Make teaching clear and show meaningful connections between the curriculum and the students' lives.
Information Access Policies
designed to ensure students maintain intellectual freedom
emphasized learning through experience. Educational reformer who wanted schools to teach problem solving rather than content.
Stages of Ethic Care (in women)
Manifest determination review
When a student with a disability commits an infraction, it may be necessary to determine whether the actions were a result of the disability.
5th and 14th amendments - legal proceedings must be fair.
4 Domains of Childhood Development
Physical, Cognitive, Language, Social (emotional and feelings)
A performance-oriented goal would view failure as a lack of ability. While a mastery-oriented goal would see failure as a sign to redirect efforts.
Jacoub Kounin - a teacher knows what's going on in his/her classroom.
Methods for helping students acquire and retain fact-based information:
"1. Rehearsal: Having the students repeat information frequently
2. Meaningful learning: Having students create an association between new and existing information
3. Organization: Connections are made between old and new information
4. Elaboration: Adjoining additional information to new information
5. Visual imagery: Creating mental pictures for new information
6. Mnemonics: using patterns, acronyms, or rhymes"
When choosing technology to support learning, it must be rejected if it does not support ____.
focuses on providing all students across the board a core curriculum or the essentials of education
Nabozny v. Podlesny
Schools must take reasonable steps to prevent harassment based on sexual orientation.
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Levels
"a way to organize different levels of thinking (Bloom's) into 4 specific levels in order to help break down learning standards:
1. Recall/Reproduce - memorization/application
2. Skills/Concepts - comparing, predicting, etc.
3. Strategic Thinking - planing, developing, reasoning (short term)
4. Extended Thinking - long term investigating/planning. "
Competency, diagnostic, and special purpose tests
are used to determine if students are proficient in basic skills. These skills include reading and writing.
are used to assess student understanding to gauge strengths and weaknesses
National Art Education Association
holds an annual conference to advocate and raise awareness for alternative forms of education (specifically art).
Education reformer of the 1800's in the U.S. Promoted common schools.
formed in the 1800s in order to train teachers to teach at common schools
present/current goals of a group
Eight cognitive processes
Extraverted and introverted: sensing, intuiting, thinking, and feeling
has to do with experiencing the physical world as well as checking for useable data.
Each student has at least one advisor (teacher or staff member)
Guadalupe Organization, Inc. v. Tempe School District
This 1972 decision addressed the tendency of English Language Learners to be declared learning disabled. According to this decision, students cannot be declared MR unless they were properly assessed by considering primary language and were at least 2 standard deviations below the mean
Pavlov - It is a natural response based on stimulus. Students who perceive painful responses to failure may fear tests. Educators should attempt to alleviate fear in testing situation.
Sequence of a curriculum
is the order in which content is presented to learners over time.
Scope of a curriculum
depth and breadth
help students build images in which they see themselves the way they want to be. The student has to rehearse the image in his mind and practice seeing himself as successful. Visualizations and affirmations are two tools used to help students reprogram negative self-images.
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow noted 15 different characteristics of a self-actualized person. He also identified 7 behaviors that lead to self-actualization. They are trying new things, experiencing life like a child does, listening to one's own feelings, being honest, being prepared, taking responsibility, and working to identify one's defenses.
First published in 1836, they were graded, or leveled, readers which had a great influence on public education in the United States. The content of the text upheld American values for this time. There were several series of Readers. By 1879, more than 60 million had been sold.
developed the "Follow the Child" theory used in many early-childhood programs. She believed that children learn more when their interests are taken into consideration in the learning process.
A method which links a series of facts or ideas together, so that when one fact is remembered, it triggers recall of a lot of other related facts. It used to be a technique for the gifted students but now it is regarded as effective with students of any ability level.
actions that can be internalized as symbols and reversed and coordinated
is defined as the belief in one's own abilities
is associated with behaviorism. He is also associated with the Little Albert Experiment. The Little Albert Experiment is deals with teaching a small child to fear a white rat.
Protection of Pupils' Rights
provides protection of confidentiality of student records.
Oregon School Case of 1925
In this case, also known as Pierce vs. Society of Sisters, the Society of Sisters challenged the State of Oregon's law of requiring all students to attend public school. It was determined that requiring students to attend public schools is a violation of the 14th Amendment. Children can be required to attend public or private schools.
The Land Ordinance of 1785
helped to create a way to fund public education.
Mills vs. Board of Education of District of Columbia,
Schools must distribute money equally between disabled and nondisabled students.
Examples of student centered learning
include discovery learning, cooperative leaning, collaborative learning, and independent study.
is the process by which a teacher remains with the same class for two or more grade levels. It is more common in elementary schools but models are being explored at the middle and high school levels as well.
identifies what the learners already know and what they need to know. Does not evaluate or test or assess proficiency.
is the score that must be reached for a student to be considered proficient. There may be more than one score to separate students into basic, proficient, and advanced.
is a professional development technique in which a group of teachers collaboratively designs a lesson. Then each teacher teaches the lesson while the others observe. The group then discusses the lesson, with the goal of improving both the lesson and the teachers' delivery of it.
is a set of lessons that have a common topic or theme.
Equity in school mathematics
means that in any classroom, school or district all students have access to high-quality, engaging mathematics instruction. There are three main points to the equity principle. First, it requires high expectations and worthwhile opportunities for all. Second, accommodations must be provided to support all students in their learning of important mathematics. Third, it requires resources and support for all classrooms and all students to achieve equity.
is a group of children reading aloud together. It does not help students to interpret word meaning.
Weaknesses of selected-response tests
include the influence of test taking savvy, lack of higher thinking skills engagement, and poor questions.They are typically fast for students to take and to grade, making time a strength.
Association of American Educators
is the largest national, non-union, professional educators' organization. They advocate the advancement of professional educators, represent teaching staff and promote professionalism in all areas of education. Since they are a non-union, they pride themselves on having very little government influence or control
Kohlberg's Moral Development
There are three levels of development: Preconventional Level, Conventional Level and the Postconventional Level. Each level includes two stages. The first stage is the Obedience and Punishment stage where children fear punishment and feel that rules are absolute.
students in groups and each student has their own specific role.
3 areas of human development
They are physical, cognitive, and social-emotional.
considered the "father of American education." He was Secretary of Education in 1839 and a great proponent of the common schools. He presided over the establishment of teacher training schools called "normal schools."
When a student uses different linguistic patterns in class, at home, or on the playground. Students use different patterns to match different situations. Language is connected to its social context.
passivity, poor coping, preference for younger playmates
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