75 terms


What term was used to describe the Serb massacre of Muslims in Bosnia
ethnic cleansing
What are the two major myths about race that are refuted in the text?
Certain races are superior to others, and pure race exists
Race is to biology as ____ is to cultural heritage.
Which statement is ALWAYS true of dominant groups?
a dominant group has greater power and privilege than another
Prejudice describes _____ while discrimination describes ____
What conclusion did sociologist Kathleen Blee reach after she studied women who joined hate groups?
women who join hate groups have a perceived personal need to belong to controversial groups
What analogy mentioned in the text has been suggested by some analysts as a more appropriate way to describe the United States than the concept of the "melting pot"
an ethnic stew
Some african americans make efforts to straighten their hair to look more "white" and believe african american women with lighter skin are more beautiful than those with dark skin. What is this phenonom called?
the internalization of the norms of the dominant group
What is the major difference between how sociologists and psychologists attempt to understand prejudice?
psychologists examine conditions inside the individual, and sociologists examine conditions outside the individual
What is the method of intergroup relations that allows the minority group to adopt the dominants groups patterns in their own way and at their own speed
permissible assimilation
Which european nation provides the best example of multiculturalism
What was the major difference between the half-million cubans who fled Castro's rise to power in 1959 and the 100,000 "boat people" who fled cuba in 1980
The 1980 group was less educated and from a lower class
Which sociologist argues that social class has become more important than race in deteremining the life chances of african americans
William Julius Wilson
Which ethnic group does the text refer to as the "invisible minority"
native americans
During WW2, Japanese americans were placed in interment camps. But chinese, koreans, and other asians were also discriminated aganist the U.S because they "looked" Japanese. What is this tendency for people to steorotype ethnic or racial groups that are distinctly different from eachother but has similar characteristics
spillover bigotry
What do gender,age, and race-ethnicity share in respect to their sociological significance?
They are all master statues that cut across all aspects of social life
What example was used by sociologist Alice Rossi to explain gender differences in her model of predispositions overlaid with culture
women are better prepared biologically for "mothering" than men
Why are women classified as a minority group?
women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics
In what countries mentioned in the text have mass media helped create an incipents women's movement by showing women that other gender relationships are possible
Iran and Afghanistan
In some societies, such as Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who is believed to have
brought disgrace to the family may be killed by a male relative. What is this practice called?
honor killing
What term is used to describe the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by
gender is wrong and should be resisted?
The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What
was the goal of the conservative branch?
winning the right to vote for women
The fact that 95 percent of construction trade degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90
percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates what concept?
gender tracking
What is the theory developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam that postulates as people
grow older they develop more subtle ways of viewing right and wrong and can tolerate more
gerotranscendece theory
Because the first of the baby boom generation are now in their 60s, how will this translate into
how members of society view the elderly and why?
the image of the elderly will improve because of their vast numbers and economic clout
Which theory of aging suggests people adjust to old age by maintaining ties with their past?
continuity theory
Which theory of aging equates happiness in old age to the amount and quality of program
participation the elderly engage in?
activity theory
Which American president had the greatest influence in developing the Social Security
Franklin D Roosevelt
What was the name of the retirement plan proposed in 1930 that would have been funded by a
national sales tax of two percent?
the Townsend plan
What is another term for legitimate power?
What were the three sources of authority identified by Max Weber?
traditional, rational-legal, charismatic
What is the routinization of charisma?
the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational-legal
What term describes the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a
country or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen?
universal citizenship
Which of the following platforms would a dedicated Democrat most likely embrace?
legislation that transfers income from the rich to poor and controls wages, working
conditions, and competition
Which sociologist coined the term "power elite" to describe the top leaders of the largest
corporations, most powerful generals and admirals, and certain elite politicians who make the
major decisions in the United States?
C.Wright Mills
What were the three conditions identified by Nicholas Timasheff as essential to war?
an atagonist situation, a cultrual tradition of warm and a fuel to heat the antagonism
During some wars, members of the weaker group strap explosives to their bodies and detonate
them in the presence of noncombatants. What is such a tactic called?
suicide terroism
When did the first noticeable conditions of social inequality occur in human societies?
when surplus was generated through a disvison of labor
In which society did power shift from the heads of families and clans to a ruling elite, leading to
greater inequality?
agricultural society
What are the three essential components of socialism?
central planning,public ownership of the means of production, distriubution without profit motive
What theory is based on the idea that the two economic systems, capitalism and socialism, will
eventually adopt features of the other until there is a hybrid economic system in all societies?
convergence theory
When Chinese leaders realized the wealth-producing capacity of capitalism, they produced
________, which is capitalism directed by communists
Sociologically, which of the following is the most accurate definition of "marriage"?
its a groups approved mating arragements
What term describes a family in which grandparents, parents, children, and grandchildren liveunder one roof?
the extended family
What do functionalists view as the purpose of the incest taboo?
it facilitates the socialization of children and it avoids role confusion
In which type of society do anthropologists thinks exogamy was especially functional?
tribal societies
Which perspective is most aligned with the belief that family provides to society economic
production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, and reproduction?
the functionalist perspective
Which of the following variables has the greatest influence on homogamy?
Approximately what percentage of marriages in the United States are between spouses of
different racial-ethnic backgrounds, and what is the total number of these marriages?
7 percent, or over 4 million couples
Which statement is true regarding the effect of social class on child rearing in the U.S.?
Middle-class parents tend to think of their children as in need of significant nuturing
What are "boomerang children"?
children who strike out on their own but then find the cost and responsibility too great and return home
Which term describes a family where at least one member of the marrying couple brings
children into it from a previous union or other marriage?
blended family
What term did sociologist Randall Collins apply to industrialized nations due to their tendency
to use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for a job?
credential societies
What were the two major goals for instituting public education in America during the 1800s?
it was to produce more educated workers and "Americanize" immigrants
In Japan, why are children from the richer families more likely to be admitted to college even
though competition is rigid and there are a limited number of openings each year?
parents spend more for tutors to prepare their children for the college entrance exam
In the Least Industrialized Nations, who is most likely to participate in a formal education
program beyond the first couple of grades?
primiarly the wealthy because of the high cost of education in these nations
What is the process of passing a nation's core values from one generation to the next, such as
respect for private property, individuality, and competition through the school system?
cultural transmission of values
Which of the following are manifest functions of the American education system?
a teaching knowledge and skills, cultural transmission of values, social integration
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania has one of the largest enrollments of disabled students in
the United States. Their extra curricular activities include wheelchair athletics, and the special
needs of all students are met through an extensive office of disabilities. What term applies to
Edinboro's effort to incorporate students with disabilities into regular school activities?
What is the process of determining which people will enter what occupations through tracking
and placing select students in "ability groups" and "advanced" classes?
the hidden curriculum
Who published the influential bookThe Elementary Forms of Religious Life in 1912that identified
the elements common to all religions?
Emile Durkheim
What impact did the introduction of the potato have on the demography of Europe?
it caused europes population to soar as fertility increased and the death rate dropped
What is the basic formula of the Malthus theorem?
population grows geometrically while food supple grows arithmeticlly
What two variables does a population pyramid usually display?
age and sex of the population
Which of the following is NOTa push factorin migration?
opportunities for education
Generally, around the globe there are 105 boys born for every 100 girls. However, recently in
some countries, this ratio has been altered with a much larger proportion of boys being born.
What is the primary reason for this shift to a higher proportion of male births?
the practice of female infranticide
What is the primary factor affecting the growth rate of most countries today?
the rate of industrialization in a country
What is the model of urban growth that views the city as a series of somewhat circular zones
growing outward from its center?
the concentric-zone modle
According to sociologist William Julius Wilson, what is the single most influential event that has
transformed the inner cities into ghettos.
Some American manufacturers are creating ghost towns by moving their operations to Mexico
where costs are lower. What term describes this phenomenon?
Who was the English social scientist who proposed a unilinear theory of social change that said
all societies pass through the stages of savagery, barbarism, and civilization?
Lewis Morgan
When missionaries introduced steel axes to the Aborigines of Australia, it upset their entire
society. What is the spreading of an invention, such as the ax, from one society to another
referred to by sociologists?
What type of social movement involves people uniting to resist social change, such as members
of the NRA collectively fighting against stricter gun control laws?
reactive social movement
What is the target and goal of a redemptive social movement?
the target is the individual and the goal is to change the entire person
What is the purpose of propaganda as it applies to how the term is used in social movements,
political campaigns, and by governments today?
propaganda is the use of "catchy slogans" to incite people to get involved in social movements