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79 terms

A&P Respiratory System

STUDY
PLAY
CO2
waste product from cells
inspiration
to breathe in
expiration
to breathe out
diffusion of gases
gas exchange between the cells of the lungs and the blood as well as between the blood and individual cells in the rest of the body
breathing
inspiration/expiration done by the person
ventilation
inspiration/expiration done by another person or a machine
upper respiratory system
organs above the thoracic cavity
lowe respiratory system
organ in the thoracic cavity
Nasal cavity
has internal and external parts
external cavity
nasal bone, cartilage, and nares
nares
nostrils
internal cavity
septum, hard palate, nasal cavity
septum
wall that divides nose into right and left halves; lined with mucous
hard palate
floor of the nose
nasal cavity
space within the nasal structures
cleft palate
opening of the hard palate
conchae
3 boney projections
sense of smell receptors
located int he upper posterior portion of the nasal cavity
lining of nasal cavity is
vascular
cilia
microscopic hairs that filter the air breathed in
sinuses
air filled spaces in the cranial cavity
what lines the sinuses
mucous membrane
what are highly susceptible to infection
sinuses
4 pairs of sinuses
maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid
function of sinuses
lighen the bones of the skull, provide mucus for the nasal cavity, act as resonant chamers for the production of sound
medical term for the throat
pharynx
function of the pharynx
passage way for air and food
3 portions of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
function of the nasopharynx
upper passage way for air
pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids
function of the oropharynx
middle section and passage way for food and air
function of the laryngopharynx
lower section and passage way for food and air
medical term for voice box
larynx
muscles in the pharynx are
involuntary
is an arrangement of space and passage ways to provide the lungs with air
respiratory system
where does the larynx lie
between the pharnyx and trachea
larynx is made of
muscle and cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
cartilage that projects in the front of the neck
Adam's apple
thyroid cartilage
inside of larynx
fold of mucous membrane called voal chords
vocal chords
elastic, vibrate, responsible for vocal sounds
glottis
space between vocal chords and opens and closes when talking
epiglottis
leaf shaped structure that covers opening to the larynx during swallowing
function of larynx
provide an airway, acts as a switching mechanism to route air and food to proper path, voice production
Medical term for the windpipe
trachea
structure of the trachea
4-5 inch tube that extends from lower voicebox to center of chest behind the heart
what is trachea enclosed in
c shaped cartilage because it keeps it from collapsing
what gland lies in front of trachea
thyroid gland
tracheostomy
artificial opening of the trachea
how many primary bronchi
2; a right and left bronchus
right bronchus
is larger and shorter and takes a more vertical direction
carina
split of the bronchi
smallest part of the bronchus
bronchiole
bronchiole structure
lose cartilage and gain smooth muscle as they get smaller
cells that line the bronchial tree
change as bronchi get smaller
cells of the bronchus
epithelial cells with cilia to filter air breathed in
alveoli
simple squamous epithelium
diffusion occurs in
alveoli
pulmono means
lung
pneumo means
lung/air
stucture of the lungs
soft, spongey, cone shaped organs
how big are the lungs
extend from the diaphragm to about 1 1/2 inches above the clavicle
Hilum or Hilus
a notch of slit in the lung where the primary bronchi and pulmonary vessels enter each lung
How many lobes does the right lung have
3 lobes
How many lobes does the left lung have
2 lobes
Prior to birth
lungs are filled with fluid and when the firs breath is taken the lungs begin to become spongey and eventual fill with air
Visceral pleura
a serous membrane attached to the surface of the lung- NEXT TO ORGAN
Parietal pleura
line the thoracic cavity- NEXT TO RIBS
Pleural cavity
lies between the two layers and has a thin film of fluid that decreases friction and holds the membranes together
Alveoli
where gas exchange takes place
importance of alveoli
most important part of respiration
structure of alveoli
microscopic air sacs clustered together
structure of alveoli
each alveolus consists of a tiny space surrounded by a thin wall which is semipermeable
structure of alveoli
lined with simple squamous epithelium
structure of alveoli
surrounded by a dense network of capillaries also surrounded by simple squamous epithelium
important thing about capillaries
they are semipermeable
Function of alveoli
gas exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries by DIFFUSION
Function of alveoli
coated with a substance called SURFACTANT
Function of surfactant
decreast the surface tension or pull of fluids present in the alveoli; help alveoli stay open