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waste product from cells


to breathe in


to breathe out

diffusion of gases

gas exchange between the cells of the lungs and the blood as well as between the blood and individual cells in the rest of the body


inspiration/expiration done by the person


inspiration/expiration done by another person or a machine

upper respiratory system

organs above the thoracic cavity

lowe respiratory system

organ in the thoracic cavity

Nasal cavity

has internal and external parts

external cavity

nasal bone, cartilage, and nares



internal cavity

septum, hard palate, nasal cavity


wall that divides nose into right and left halves; lined with mucous

hard palate

floor of the nose

nasal cavity

space within the nasal structures

cleft palate

opening of the hard palate


3 boney projections

sense of smell receptors

located int he upper posterior portion of the nasal cavity

lining of nasal cavity is



microscopic hairs that filter the air breathed in


air filled spaces in the cranial cavity

what lines the sinuses

mucous membrane

what are highly susceptible to infection


4 pairs of sinuses

maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid

function of sinuses

lighen the bones of the skull, provide mucus for the nasal cavity, act as resonant chamers for the production of sound

medical term for the throat


function of the pharynx

passage way for air and food

3 portions of the pharynx

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

function of the nasopharynx

upper passage way for air

pharyngeal tonsils


function of the oropharynx

middle section and passage way for food and air

function of the laryngopharynx

lower section and passage way for food and air

medical term for voice box


muscles in the pharynx are


is an arrangement of space and passage ways to provide the lungs with air

respiratory system

where does the larynx lie

between the pharnyx and trachea

larynx is made of

muscle and cartilage

Thyroid cartilage

cartilage that projects in the front of the neck

Adam's apple

thyroid cartilage

inside of larynx

fold of mucous membrane called voal chords

vocal chords

elastic, vibrate, responsible for vocal sounds


space between vocal chords and opens and closes when talking


leaf shaped structure that covers opening to the larynx during swallowing

function of larynx

provide an airway, acts as a switching mechanism to route air and food to proper path, voice production

Medical term for the windpipe


structure of the trachea

4-5 inch tube that extends from lower voicebox to center of chest behind the heart

what is trachea enclosed in

c shaped cartilage because it keeps it from collapsing

what gland lies in front of trachea

thyroid gland


artificial opening of the trachea

how many primary bronchi

2; a right and left bronchus

right bronchus

is larger and shorter and takes a more vertical direction


split of the bronchi

smallest part of the bronchus


bronchiole structure

lose cartilage and gain smooth muscle as they get smaller

cells that line the bronchial tree

change as bronchi get smaller

cells of the bronchus

epithelial cells with cilia to filter air breathed in


simple squamous epithelium

diffusion occurs in


pulmono means


pneumo means


stucture of the lungs

soft, spongey, cone shaped organs

how big are the lungs

extend from the diaphragm to about 1 1/2 inches above the clavicle

Hilum or Hilus

a notch of slit in the lung where the primary bronchi and pulmonary vessels enter each lung

How many lobes does the right lung have

3 lobes

How many lobes does the left lung have

2 lobes

Prior to birth

lungs are filled with fluid and when the firs breath is taken the lungs begin to become spongey and eventual fill with air

Visceral pleura

a serous membrane attached to the surface of the lung- NEXT TO ORGAN

Parietal pleura

line the thoracic cavity- NEXT TO RIBS

Pleural cavity

lies between the two layers and has a thin film of fluid that decreases friction and holds the membranes together


where gas exchange takes place

importance of alveoli

most important part of respiration

structure of alveoli

microscopic air sacs clustered together

structure of alveoli

each alveolus consists of a tiny space surrounded by a thin wall which is semipermeable

structure of alveoli

lined with simple squamous epithelium

structure of alveoli

surrounded by a dense network of capillaries also surrounded by simple squamous epithelium

important thing about capillaries

they are semipermeable

Function of alveoli

gas exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries by DIFFUSION

Function of alveoli

coated with a substance called SURFACTANT

Function of surfactant

decreast the surface tension or pull of fluids present in the alveoli; help alveoli stay open

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