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Psychology Ch 9 Final
Terms in this set (84)
the process by which we focus our conscious awareness; conscious awareness = limited in capacity
the ability to focus on one element amidst a constant flow of sensations (e.g. cocktail party phenomenon)
process by which important, but emotionally upsetting, information is ignored
3 functions of attention:
1. maintaining alertness
2. controlling behavior and the contents of consciousness
3. orienting towards the environment
maintaining alertness (vigilance/sustained attention)
commonly measured by a continuous performance task (CPT)
maintaining alertness brain areas:
reticular formation and frontal lobes
controlling behavior and the contents of consciousness
involved in thought, movement, and self-control (eg dividing attention; dichotic listening task); relies on working memory
controlling behavior and the contents of consciousness brain areas:
basal ganglia and frontal lobes
orienting toward the environment
focusing sensory organs (eg eyes or ears) toward a stimulus and spreading neural activation to the parts of the cortex that are processing information about the stimulus; e.g. Posner's Covert Orienting of Visuospatial Attention Task (COVAT)
deployment of visual attention to a location other than the focus of direct gaze
orienting toward the environment measures...
2 attention systems in the brain and 2 main types of covert orienting
2 attention systems that orienting toward the environment measures
anterior attention system and posterior attention system
anterior attention system
frontal lobes, anterior cingulate and basal ganglia
posterior attention system
pulvinar, superior colliculus and parietal cortex
2 main types of covert orienting that orienting toward the environment measures
endogenous and exogenous
generated from within the individual (eg drives and motivations); mediated by the anterior attention system
occurs in response to environmental events; mediated by the posterior attention system
Psychodynamic view of consciousness
Freud; 3 mental systems form consciousness
3 mental systems of Psychodynamic view of consciousness
mental events of which you are aware (small)
mental events that can be brought into conscious awareness easily
mental events that are inaccessible to awareness; events are actively kept out of awareness to prevent anxiety (repression)
cognitive view of consciousness
divides consciousness into 3 parts
3 parts of consciousness in cognitive view:
1. consciousness of self
2. preconscious cognitive processes
3. unconscious cognitive processes
consciousness of self
accounts for dissociative disorders and hypnotic suggestions
preconscious cognitive processes
associations and schemas activated below the consciousness threshold that influence conscious thought/behavior
unconscious cognitive processes
skills or procedures that operate without awareness and are not accessible to consciousness (eg priming, classical conditioning, implicit memory)
implicit association test
measures the strength of associations we have formed unconsciously; pair word in center with word above
Neuropsychology of Consciousness
consciousness is distributed throughout the brain: hindbrain/midbrain, thalamus, prefrontal cortex
arousal and sleep; reticular formation
alertness, consciousness and attention (damage -> coma)
shines a spotlight on important info and inhibits attention to irrelevant info
conscious control of information processing
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
involved in working memory and conscious decision making; activated when preparing to exert conscious control
involved in consciously regulating conflicting cues and inhibiting responses that are incorrect
Stoop Interference Test
activates both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate
3 conditions of Stoop Interference Test:
1. word reading condition
2. color naming condition
3. incongruent color naming condition
word reading condition
stimuli are 3 color words (RED, BLUE, GREEN) printed in black ink
color naming condition
stimuli are X's printed in colored ink that correspond to the 3 colors in the word reading (WR) condition
incongruent color naming condition
stimuli are the same color words from the WR condition, printed in incongruent colored ink (e.g. "RED" printed in green ink: read the color of the ink)
"stoop effect" or "interference effect"
resulting slowing in reaction time (RT)
during Stoop when preparing to exert conscious control, participants showed more activation in the...
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
during Stoop when monitoring for conflicts, participants showed more activation in the...
cyclical biological processes that evolved around the daily cycles of light and dark (from the Latin circa, meaning "about" and dies, meaning "day")
circadian rhythms controlled by the...
hypothalamus (responds to light) and the pineal gland (produces melatonin during darkness); melatonin pills may help "reset" the biological clock
how much do infants sleep?
2/3 (16 hrs) of each day; about 50% is REM (dream) sleep
how much do elderly adults sleep?
1/4 (6 hrs) of each day
how much do adults sleep?
1/3 (8 hrs) of each day; about 25% is REM (dream) sleep; differ in amount of sleep need/get; average 6.5-8.5 hrs/night)
the number of hours people sleep is related to...
mortality rates; <4 & >10 hrs = highest; 8 hrs = lowest; people who report sleeping unusually short durations are prone to die earlier
3 functions of sleep:
1. energy conservation
2. memory consolidation
3. restoring bodily functions
sleep deprivation can...
reduce the functioning of immune system and lead to early death; lead to hallucinations
assessment tool that represents voltage differences emerging from the brain between sites on the scalp and a neutral reference
Electroencephalograph (EEG) uses...
electrodes, small pieces of metal that readily conduct electricity, which are attached to the scalp by various means
electrical activity at the scalp is a byproduct of...
neural activity from various sources, including muscle and skin; electrical activity coming from the brain is small
different sources of electrical activity at the scalp generate waveform outputs with different...
frequencies and amplitudes
number of cycles per second, measured in Hertz (Hz)
height and depth of wave -> refers to the intensity of energy transmission
when energy from many units in the brain is produced simultaneously (when there is synchrony)....
large amplitude/slow frequency waves are generated
when each unit in the brain is going at its own pace (when there is desynchrony)....
only low amplitude/faster frequency waves are generated
delta (Hz & associated features)
Hz : <4
present in stages 3 and 4 sleep
theta (Hz & associated features)
Hz : 4-7
present in stage 1 sleep
alpha (Hz & associated features)
Hz : 8-12
present in realized states with eyes closed
beta (Hz & associated features)
Hz : >13
present during active information processing
EEG stage 1 of sleep
slowing of waves; increase in theta waves; brief (few minutes)
EEG stage 2 of sleep
bulk of sleep (45%); sleep spindles and high amplitude K-complexes
EEG stage 3 of sleep
appearance of delta waves
EEG stage 4 of sleep
predominance of delta waves (>50% of recorded brain activity); relaxed muscles; decreased rate of respiration; slightly lower body temperature
EEG REM of sleep
desynchrony in EEG
5 characteristics of REM sleep
1. presence of Rapid-Eye-Movements
2. presence of dreaming (80% of time when awakened from REM, people report dreaming)
3. increased autonomic nervous system activity (eg pulse/respiration quickens)
4. EEG resembles that of awake state
5. motor paralysis (except for diaphragm)
as people move from a waking state through deeper stages of NREM sleep....
their brain waves become less frequent with a higher amplitude
stages of sleep follows a cyclical pattern that repeats about every....
90 minutes from stage 1 through delta sleep and back again
as night progresses, person spends less time in _____ sleep and more time in ______ sleep
3 perspectives on dreaming:
1. psychoanalytic view
2. cognitive view
3. biological view
dreams represent a window into the unconscious; have meaning but must be deciphered by someone skilled in dream interpretation
in psychoanalytic view, the _____ content is inferred from the _____ content
latent (underlying meaning)
manifest (actual dream = storyline)
Freud proposed that the underlying meaning of every dream is an...
unconscious wish, typically a sexual or aggressive desire
according to Freud, people often rapidly forget their dreams upon awakening because dreams contain...
anxiety-provoking thoughts that are repressed during normal waking consciousness
dreams are cognitive constructions that reflect the concerns people express in their waking thought; simply form of though & express current concerns in another language with its own peculiar grammar
biological view (activation-synthesis hypothesis)
dreams are biological phenomena with no meaning
According to biological view dreams reflect ______ interpretations of neural signals in the midbrain, which are relayed through the ______ to the association areas, which try to understand this info by using ______
cortical, thalamus, schemas
According to biological view because the initial signals are essentially random...
the interpretations proposed by the cortex rarely make logical sense
dreams are important for...
during NREM sleep...
the hippocampus activates the cortex to consolidate memories
during REM sleep...
the cortex erases old memories from the hippocampus that are fully consolidated
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