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Black Death

The disease that moved from South to North

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king during the 100 years war

Babylonian Captivity

The pope resided in Avignon

The Greath Schism

When there was more than one pope in Europe

John Wycliff

Believed that the scriptures alone should dictate Christian belief

Vernacular Literature

language spoken in their own regions, such as Italian, German, of French then put into writing


Wrote the divine comedies

The Prince

Written by Machiavelli


a dictator with absolute power


a political system governed by a few people

The Courtier

Castiglione, explains the lifestyle of a proper gentleman, ex.) well-versed in poetry, literature, music, dance, etc.

Pope Sixtus IV

Built the Vatican library


The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.


"New Learning"


wrote canterbury tales


The Sculptor who led the way before Michelangelo


Painted the Last Judgement

Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-1556

Johnnes Guttenberg

Created the printing press

The 14th Century

First use of clocks (year)

Thomas More

Wrote Utopia and was later killed by King Henry VIII

Desiderius Erasmus

Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible

Charles VII

Issued the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, allowing the French monarchy to appoint bishops

Court of the Star chamber

court where habeus copus was suspended, reduced aristocratic trouble, had star painted on ceiling


Spanish police force that curbed the rebellious aristocracy

New Christians

When the Jews where kicked out of Spain they were given the option to leave or become this...., the translation of the Spanish word conversos, referring to Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the fourteenth century in order to avoid persecution.

Duke of Saxony

Saved Martin Luther after the Diet of Worms

Martin Luther

Wrote the 95 Theses

John Tetzel

Sold indulgences in Wittenburg

Diet of Worms

Place where Martin Luther was asked to recant

Ulrich Zwingli

Introduced the reformation to Switzerland


Occupation of Matin Luthers' Father


believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans


Belief that baptism shouldn't happen as a baby. Off shoots of the Anababtists were the Quakers and mennonite

John Knox

Brought Calvinism into Scotland

The Supremacy Act

Issued by King Henry VII declaring him king of the Anglican church

Edward VI

King Henry's only son, Wrote the Book of common prayer (Protestant)

Mary Tudor

Took control of England after King Edward's death (Catholic)

Queen Elizabeth

Created the Elizabethan Settlement, which allowed for outward conformity to the Anglican Church but alowed for home practices of the peoples religion of choosing

Council of Trent

Council Called to reform the church


A society that preached Christianity, was started by Ignatious Loyla


French name for Calvinists

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

A slaughtering of French Huguenots

Henry IV

Created the Edict of Nantes and Said "Paris is worth a mass"

Edict of Nantes

Granted French Huguenots freedom to practice Calvinism in 150 fortified towns

Union of Utrecht

7 Northern provinces not controlled by the Dutch

Spanish Armada

Attack on the Protestant British, plotted to Kill Queen Elizabeth.

Peace of Augsburg

Allowed for each prince to pick the religion of his choosing (protestantism or Catholicism)

30 year war

Protestant Union Vs. Catholic Union

Peace of Westphalia 1648

Treaty , This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities

Age of Discovery

1450-1650 (Marco Polo, Cortez)


A small ship developed by the Portuguese


Instrument used to tell the time of night


Instrument used to figure out the latitude of a ship


Half spanish - Half Native people

The Columbian Exchange

enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, food, human population, diseases and ideas; one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture and culture between America, Asia, Europe, and Africa.


Were burned at the stake for working with the devil

Michel de Montaigne

Wrote the Essay

Baroque Art

Part of the Counter Reformation. Displayed a religious theme, red and gold color scheme, dark (sinner) vs. light (saint), and was intensely dramatic. Early Baroque art was dominated by Spain.

Habsburg-Valois wars

Intermittent fighting between France and the Italian states

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

Treaty signed that ended the fighting between France and the italian states

Divine Right

Ruled in the name of God

Totalitarian Government

Ruled everything from the Economy to Music

Duke of Sully

Protestant Prime Minister to King Henry VII

Cardinal Richelieu

Prime Minister to King Louis XIII, divided France into 32 states and created intendant system for total power


Placed in French states and were told to weaken region power

Siege of La Rochelle

French battle that weakened Protestant power

French Academy

Academy set up to manage the French Language

Raison detat

The law that allowed for any action to be justified by "doing it for the state"

Cardinal Marizan

Prime Minister to King Louis XIV, who increased royal revenues


Opposition to the King of France

King Louis XIV

Known as Le Roi Soliel (The Sun King)


Palace built in the Suburbs of Paris


The First Estate


Second Estate

Everyone Else

Third Estate

Jean-Babtiste Colbert

Created French Mercantilism (export more and import less)


Craftsmen ordered in to them? under Colberts' reign

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

THousands of Huguenots had to emigrate because of this revocation

Treaty of the Pyrenees

Trea, The treaty that ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years' War; the treaty marked the end of Spain's status as a major European power.

Philip of Anjou

Charles II of Spain left him to be the heir

Peace of Utrecht

Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.


The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.


as taking communion, wine becomes blood, wafer becomes body (catholic)


The taking of the bread and the wine

Miguel de Cervantes

Wrote Don Quixote

King James I

English King who believed in divine rights and who was the heir to Queen Elizabeth


Wanted to Completely rid the Anglican Church of Catholicism

King Charles I

Heir to King James, dissolved the parliament because they wouldn't allow for more taxing

Oliver Cromwell

Military dictatorship, regulated the British economy and took over the government after the execution of Charles I

Charles II

Restored the houses of Parliament, He also made a deal with the French in order to relax the laws against Catholics

James II

Brother of King Charles II, Appointed Roman Catholics in all governmental positions in order to stop anti-catholic fears

John Locke

Wrote the "Second Treatise of Civil Government" and believed in natural rights

Navigation Acts

Only British ships could ship between England and the Colonies

Fredrick I

The Great Elector of Brandenburg

Hereditary Subjungation

Peasant are bound to their land

Sultan Sulieman the Magnificent

Great Ottoman Sultan

Pragmatic Sanction

Law that allowed for a women to rule the Habsburg Empire and for the Habsburg lands to never be divided

Fredrick III

Prussian king who greatly admired Louis XIV

Fredrick William I

Prussian King who loved his army and tall soldiers. Created the 4th largest army in Europe


Prussian word for nobles


Group of Eastern European people who escaped the Kings reign

Service Nobility

Nobility that held land for the Tsars specific use

Tycho Brahe

Built Observatory in the Netherlands, Had a pet moose


This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon


This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun


Believed sun was the center of the universe


This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science

Fancis Bacon

Created the scientific method of Empiricism

Rene Descartes

Created the scientific method of deduction


Place for philosophes to converse

Catherine the Great and Joseph II

Two of the enlightened monarchs during the Enlightenment

Adam Smith

Creator of the modern government

Edward Jenner

Created the first smallpox vaccine using cowpox

Illegitimate Children

The result of premarital sex

Killing Nurses

Nurses that kill the child

Wet Nurse

Nurse that breast fed for the mother

Foundling homes

Place for orphaned children

Just Price

Fair and equal prices for goods


New food that was initially fed to pigs

John Wesley

Organizer of the Holy Club which became the first Methodist


The French upper middle class

The stamp acts

Taxes on many American goods

Flight of flight of varennes

When King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette fled

Reign of Terror

The Squashing of anti-revolutionaries by the committee of public safety

Declaration of Rights of Man 1789

First French Constitution


The laboring French poor

The index

List of banned books

Maximillian Robespierre

Revolution French leader


French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

Napoleonic code

Code which took away women's rights, husband had absolute power

Concordant of 1801

An agreement in which the pope was to give up all his claims to French land acquired during the revolution, and to allow France to have its own French Bishops. The French had to recognize Catholism as the religion of the majority of French People.

Spinning Jenny

The machice H, This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)

Water frame

1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms


First Person to create a steam engine


Produced a more efficient steam engine

The Rocket

The fist locomotive, went 16mph

William Cockerill

Englishman who slipped out the country to share British Secrets with other countries

Factory Acts of 1833

Limited factory workdays for children between 9-13 to 10 hours a day

Mine Acts of 1842

Prohibited mine work for all women and children

The combination Acts

The Act that outlawed unions

Robert Owen

Man who Created the first union

Chartist demands

The right for universal suffrage


Conservative Prime Minister of Germany , a German-Austrian politician and statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to and at the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy.


french foreign minister who represented France in Congress of Vienna

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