How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

145 terms

Mckay AP Euro

STUDY
PLAY
Black Death
The disease that moved from South to North
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king during the 100 years war
Babylonian Captivity
The pope resided in Avignon
The Greath Schism
When there was more than one pope in Europe
John Wycliff
Believed that the scriptures alone should dictate Christian belief
Vernacular Literature
language spoken in their own regions, such as Italian, German, of French then put into writing
Dante
Wrote the divine comedies
The Prince
Written by Machiavelli
Despot
a dictator with absolute power
Oligarchy
a political system governed by a few people
The Courtier
Castiglione, explains the lifestyle of a proper gentleman, ex.) well-versed in poetry, literature, music, dance, etc.
Pope Sixtus IV
Built the Vatican library
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
Humanism
"New Learning"
Chaucer
wrote canterbury tales
Donetello
The Sculptor who led the way before Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Painted the Last Judgement
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-1556
Johnnes Guttenberg
Created the printing press
The 14th Century
First use of clocks (year)
Thomas More
Wrote Utopia and was later killed by King Henry VIII
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible
Charles VII
Issued the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, allowing the French monarchy to appoint bishops
Court of the Star chamber
court where habeus copus was suspended, reduced aristocratic trouble, had star painted on ceiling
Hermandades
Spanish police force that curbed the rebellious aristocracy
New Christians
When the Jews where kicked out of Spain they were given the option to leave or become this...., the translation of the Spanish word conversos, referring to Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the fourteenth century in order to avoid persecution.
Duke of Saxony
Saved Martin Luther after the Diet of Worms
Martin Luther
Wrote the 95 Theses
John Tetzel
Sold indulgences in Wittenburg
Diet of Worms
Place where Martin Luther was asked to recant
Ulrich Zwingli
Introduced the reformation to Switzerland
Miner
Occupation of Matin Luthers' Father
Calvinism
believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans
Anabaptists
Belief that baptism shouldn't happen as a baby. Off shoots of the Anababtists were the Quakers and mennonite
John Knox
Brought Calvinism into Scotland
The Supremacy Act
Issued by King Henry VII declaring him king of the Anglican church
Edward VI
King Henry's only son, Wrote the Book of common prayer (Protestant)
Mary Tudor
Took control of England after King Edward's death (Catholic)
Queen Elizabeth
Created the Elizabethan Settlement, which allowed for outward conformity to the Anglican Church but alowed for home practices of the peoples religion of choosing
Council of Trent
Council Called to reform the church
Jesuits
A society that preached Christianity, was started by Ignatious Loyla
Huguenots
French name for Calvinists
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A slaughtering of French Huguenots
Henry IV
Created the Edict of Nantes and Said "Paris is worth a mass"
Edict of Nantes
Granted French Huguenots freedom to practice Calvinism in 150 fortified towns
Union of Utrecht
7 Northern provinces not controlled by the Dutch
Spanish Armada
Attack on the Protestant British, plotted to Kill Queen Elizabeth.
Peace of Augsburg
Allowed for each prince to pick the religion of his choosing (protestantism or Catholicism)
30 year war
Protestant Union Vs. Catholic Union
Peace of Westphalia 1648
Treaty , This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Age of Discovery
1450-1650 (Marco Polo, Cortez)
Caravel
A small ship developed by the Portuguese
Nocturnal
Instrument used to tell the time of night
Astrolabe
Instrument used to figure out the latitude of a ship
Mezitos
Half spanish - Half Native people
The Columbian Exchange
enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, food, human population, diseases and ideas; one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture and culture between America, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
Witch
Were burned at the stake for working with the devil
Michel de Montaigne
Wrote the Essay
Baroque Art
Part of the Counter Reformation. Displayed a religious theme, red and gold color scheme, dark (sinner) vs. light (saint), and was intensely dramatic. Early Baroque art was dominated by Spain.
Habsburg-Valois wars
Intermittent fighting between France and the Italian states
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Treaty signed that ended the fighting between France and the italian states
Divine Right
Ruled in the name of God
Totalitarian Government
Ruled everything from the Economy to Music
Duke of Sully
Protestant Prime Minister to King Henry VII
Cardinal Richelieu
Prime Minister to King Louis XIII, divided France into 32 states and created intendant system for total power
Intedants
Placed in French states and were told to weaken region power
Siege of La Rochelle
French battle that weakened Protestant power
French Academy
Academy set up to manage the French Language
Raison detat
The law that allowed for any action to be justified by "doing it for the state"
Cardinal Marizan
Prime Minister to King Louis XIV, who increased royal revenues
Fronde
Opposition to the King of France
King Louis XIV
Known as Le Roi Soliel (The Sun King)
Versailles
Palace built in the Suburbs of Paris
Clergy
The First Estate
Nobility
Second Estate
Everyone Else
Third Estate
Jean-Babtiste Colbert
Created French Mercantilism (export more and import less)
Guilds
Craftsmen ordered in to them? under Colberts' reign
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
THousands of Huguenots had to emigrate because of this revocation
Treaty of the Pyrenees
Trea, The treaty that ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years' War; the treaty marked the end of Spain's status as a major European power.
Philip of Anjou
Charles II of Spain left him to be the heir
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
Transubstantiantion
as taking communion, wine becomes blood, wafer becomes body (catholic)
Eucharist
The taking of the bread and the wine
Miguel de Cervantes
Wrote Don Quixote
King James I
English King who believed in divine rights and who was the heir to Queen Elizabeth
Puritans
Wanted to Completely rid the Anglican Church of Catholicism
King Charles I
Heir to King James, dissolved the parliament because they wouldn't allow for more taxing
Oliver Cromwell
Military dictatorship, regulated the British economy and took over the government after the execution of Charles I
Charles II
Restored the houses of Parliament, He also made a deal with the French in order to relax the laws against Catholics
James II
Brother of King Charles II, Appointed Roman Catholics in all governmental positions in order to stop anti-catholic fears
John Locke
Wrote the "Second Treatise of Civil Government" and believed in natural rights
Navigation Acts
Only British ships could ship between England and the Colonies
Fredrick I
The Great Elector of Brandenburg
Hereditary Subjungation
Peasant are bound to their land
Sultan Sulieman the Magnificent
Great Ottoman Sultan
Pragmatic Sanction
Law that allowed for a women to rule the Habsburg Empire and for the Habsburg lands to never be divided
Fredrick III
Prussian king who greatly admired Louis XIV
Fredrick William I
Prussian King who loved his army and tall soldiers. Created the 4th largest army in Europe
Junkers
Prussian word for nobles
Cossacks
Group of Eastern European people who escaped the Kings reign
Service Nobility
Nobility that held land for the Tsars specific use
Tycho Brahe
Built Observatory in the Netherlands, Had a pet moose
Galileo
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Copernicus
Believed sun was the center of the universe
Newton
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Fancis Bacon
Created the scientific method of Empiricism
Rene Descartes
Created the scientific method of deduction
Salons
Place for philosophes to converse
Catherine the Great and Joseph II
Two of the enlightened monarchs during the Enlightenment
Adam Smith
Creator of the modern government
Edward Jenner
Created the first smallpox vaccine using cowpox
Illegitimate Children
The result of premarital sex
Killing Nurses
Nurses that kill the child
Wet Nurse
Nurse that breast fed for the mother
Foundling homes
Place for orphaned children
Just Price
Fair and equal prices for goods
potato
New food that was initially fed to pigs
John Wesley
Organizer of the Holy Club which became the first Methodist
Bourgoise
The French upper middle class
The stamp acts
Taxes on many American goods
Flight of flight of varennes
When King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette fled
Reign of Terror
The Squashing of anti-revolutionaries by the committee of public safety
Declaration of Rights of Man 1789
First French Constitution
Sansculottes
The laboring French poor
The index
List of banned books
Maximillian Robespierre
Revolution French leader
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Napoleonic code
Code which took away women's rights, husband had absolute power
Concordant of 1801
An agreement in which the pope was to give up all his claims to French land acquired during the revolution, and to allow France to have its own French Bishops. The French had to recognize Catholism as the religion of the majority of French People.
Spinning Jenny
The machice H, This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
Water frame
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
Newcommen
First Person to create a steam engine
Watt
Produced a more efficient steam engine
The Rocket
The fist locomotive, went 16mph
William Cockerill
Englishman who slipped out the country to share British Secrets with other countries
Factory Acts of 1833
Limited factory workdays for children between 9-13 to 10 hours a day
Mine Acts of 1842
Prohibited mine work for all women and children
The combination Acts
The Act that outlawed unions
Robert Owen
Man who Created the first union
Chartist demands
The right for universal suffrage
Metternich
Conservative Prime Minister of Germany , a German-Austrian politician and statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to and at the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy.
Tallyrand
french foreign minister who represented France in Congress of Vienna