Chapter 10 - DNA, RNA, Transcription, and Translation
Terms in this set (34)
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the shape of a double helix.
The building block of a nucleic acid.
Made of a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one nitrogenous base.
Adenine pairs with thymine, guanine pairs with cytosine.
Sugar found in a DNA nucleotide.
Adenine and guanine; made of a double ring structure.
Cytosine and thymine; made of a single ring structure.
The order of nitrogenous bases on a strand of DNA.
Complementary base pairing rules
In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine; in RNA, adenine pairs with uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine.
Enzyme that separates the DNA strands prior to replication by breaking the hydrogen bonds that holds the two strands together.
The process by which DNA is copied.
Enzyme that adds complementary DNA nucleotides to the original strand.
After replication, each new DNA molecules consists of one original strand and one new strand.
Replication in Eukaryotes
Begins at many points along each chromosome and proceeds in both directions so the DNA can be copied quickly.
Replication in Prokaryotes
Begins at one point on the single circular chromosome and proceeds in both directions.
Segment of DNA that encodes for a characteristic.
DNA acts as a template to make RNA; occurs in the nucleus.
RNA is used to direct the synthesis of a protein; occurs in the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid; single stranded; the length of one gene.
Made of a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Adenine pairs with uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries the instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Makes up part of the structure of ribosomes.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make protein.
Adds complementary RNA nucleotides to one of the DNA strands.
Sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase binds to begin transcription.
Sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase stops transcription.
Sections of mRNA that are removed during mRNA processing
Sections of mRNA that remain and are put together during mRNA processing.
Three nucleotides in a row on mRNA that correspond to a particular amino acid or stop signal; there are 64.
Three nucleotides in a row on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to a codon on mRNA.
AUG; codes for methionine.
Do not code for an amino acid; signal for translation to end.
A chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.